A&P 1 exam 2 (part 3)
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A&P 1 exam 2 (part 3)
fall 2014 exam
Arthrology Fall 2014
study of articulation of joints
any places where 2 or more bones meet
articulations may be?
freely moveable, slightly moveable or immoveable
2 classifications of arthrology?
how it is put together
how much movement is allowed
3 structural classifications of joints?
hold things together with fibers, little or not movement
2 subtypes of fibrous joints?
interlocking of the elements found in cranium of skull and help to prevent movement
bands of fibers going between two elements are known as ?
uses bonds of tissue and has no free movement
2 types of cartilaginous joints?
give flexibility, also physical arragements affects give of cartilage
aka hyaline cartilage
how is fibrocartilage different from hyaline?
the amt of collagen fibers
ex of hyaline cartilage?
articulation between ribs and sternum
ex of fibrocartilage?
found in places without a lot of compression
along vertebral column, intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis
fibrocartilage acts as?
these act a symphysis
legs attach to pelvic girdle creating compression
bone to bone ?
any joint where movement articulation occurs
characteristic of synovial joint?
joint cavity where between articulating elements
what joint allows movement?
allows bones to slide or glide
4 possibilities of synovial joints?
where can nonaxial joints be found?
on facets (vertebrae, ribs)
have flat surface
some allow rotation in single, 2 of 3, or all 3
axial joints include?
movement of single axis that prevent movement in other 2 joints
movement of 2 of 3 axis
movement in all 2 axis
shape allows movement in single axis
ex of uniaxial joints
humerus and ulna
ex of biaxial joints?
articulation at knuckles with palm of hand, fingers, wrists
mechanism that allows movement in 2 diff planes, it is missing what plane?
x plane? y plane? z plane?
2 movements of fingers?
side to side
forward to back
doing 2 movements at the same time
ex of circumduction?
fingers moving side to side and forward to back at the same time
no physical restrictions in any of the axis
triaxial joints have what type of design
ball and socket
ex of triaxial joints
femur and iscium, femus and ilum, femur and pubis
shoulder (humerus and scapula)
structure of synovial joints?
outerwall that encloses joint cavity, tough fibrous outer covering
can continue on as a periosteum after joint
positive of joint capsule continuing as periosteum?
is creates not weak places and adds strength to articulation
lines outside of joint capsule, covers articular surfaces
lines what articular cartilage doesn't line
open areas filled with a thick, viscous fluid that has the consistency of egg whites
synovial fluid keeps?
2 articulating elements from making physical contact with one another
in order for element to touch in a synovial joint, the fluid would have to be?
why can two elements never touch?
joint capsule wont let any synovial fluid out. could only do this if it were to expand;;;;; therefore 2 bony elements will never touch
what can be found in synovial joints?
ex of synovial joints?
knee- made of disks and rings
criss cross in all different ways
bands of dense regular connective tissue that is continuous with joint capsule
ligaments can be found?
in thickenings in wall of joint capsule
ligaments can either be ?
in or out of joint capsule
internal ligaments ex?
where ligaments cross, sets up?
a point of tension
problem with ligaments
where they cross can set up a point of intersection
like a pillow placed between areas where ligaments would rub one another or tendons
slippery and have lots of pressure on them
when bursae become inflamed causing pain
ex of where bursae can be found?
sits on patella
blood and nerve supply in synovial joints can be ?
why does having multiple blood vessels and nerves going to synovial joints protect against injury?
have multiple bc its better than only having one if one were to become injured
blood and nerve supply works so well bc?
it is the collects sensory info constantly
monitors body parts
the largest sensory input sent to brain
also the largest output of brain is in response to this