A&P 1 exam 2 (part 3)

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melissag94
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285589
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A&P 1 exam 2 (part 3)
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2014-10-12 14:11:27
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fall 2014 exam
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Arthrology Fall 2014
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  1. study of articulation of joints
    arthrology
  2. any places where 2 or more bones meet
    articulations
  3. articulations may be?
    freely moveable, slightly moveable or immoveable
  4. 2 classifications of arthrology?
    • functional
    • structural
  5. structural arthrology?
    how it is put together
  6. functional arthrology?
    how much movement is allowed
  7. 3 structural classifications of joints?
    • fibrous joints
    • cartilaginous joints
    • synovial joints
  8. hold things together with fibers, little or not movement
    fibrous joints
  9. 2 subtypes of fibrous joints?
    • suture
    • syndesmosis
  10. interlocking of the elements found in cranium of skull and help to prevent movement
    suture
  11. bands of fibers going between two elements are known as ?
    ligaments
  12. uses bonds of tissue and has no free movement
    syndesmosis
  13. 2 types of cartilaginous joints?
    • synchondrosis
    • symphysis
  14. give flexibility, also physical arragements affects give of cartilage
    cartilaginous joint
  15. aka hyaline cartilage
    synchondrosis
  16. aka fibrocartilage
    symphysis
  17. how is fibrocartilage different from hyaline?
    the amt of collagen fibers
  18. ex of hyaline cartilage?
    articulation between ribs and sternum
  19. ex of fibrocartilage?
    • found in places without a lot of compression
    • along vertebral column, intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis
  20. fibrocartilage acts as?
    shock absorber
  21. these act a symphysis
    intervertebral disk
  22. pubic symphysis?
    legs attach to pelvic girdle creating compression
  23. bone to bone ?
    cartilaginous joint
  24. any joint where movement articulation occurs
    synovial joint
  25. characteristic of synovial joint?
    joint cavity where between articulating elements
  26. what joint allows movement?
    synovial joint
  27. allows rotation
    axial
  28. allows bones to slide or glide
    nonaxial
  29. 4 possibilities of synovial joints?
    • nonaxial
    • axial
    • uniaxial
    • biaxial
  30. where can nonaxial joints be found?
    on facets (vertebrae, ribs)
  31. nonaxial joints?
    • gliding
    • have flat surface
  32. some allow rotation in single, 2 of 3, or all 3
    axial joints
  33. axial joints include?
    • uni
    • bi
    • triaxial
  34. movement of single axis that prevent movement in other 2 joints
    uni joint
  35. movement of 2 of 3 axis
    bi joint
  36. movement in all 2 axis
    triaxial joint
  37. shape allows movement in single axis
    uniaxial joints
  38. ex of uniaxial joints
    humerus  and ulna
  39. ex of biaxial joints?
    articulation at knuckles with palm of hand, fingers, wrists
  40. mechanism that allows movement in 2 diff planes, it is missing what plane?
    • biaxial joint
    • z plane
  41. x plane? y plane? z plane?
    • uni
    • bi
    • tri
  42. 2 movements of fingers?
    • side to side
    • forward to back
  43. doing 2 movements at the same time
    circumduction
  44. ex of circumduction?
    fingers moving side to side and forward to back at the same time
  45. no physical restrictions in any of the axis
    triaxial joints
  46. triaxial joints have what type of design
    ball and socket
  47. ex of triaxial joints
    • femur and iscium, femus and ilum, femur and pubis
    • shoulder (humerus and scapula)
  48. structure of synovial joints?
    • joint capsule
    • articular cartilage
    • synovial membrane
    • synovial fluid
  49. outerwall that encloses joint cavity, tough fibrous outer covering
    joint capsule
  50. can continue on as a periosteum after joint
    joint capsule
  51. positive of joint capsule continuing as periosteum?
    is creates not weak places and adds strength to articulation
  52. lines outside of joint capsule, covers articular surfaces
    articular cartilage
  53. lines what articular cartilage doesn't line
    synovial membrane
  54. open areas filled with a thick, viscous fluid that has the consistency of egg whites
    synovial fluid
  55. synovial fluid keeps?
    2 articulating elements from making physical contact with one another
  56. in order for element to touch in a synovial joint, the fluid would have to be?
    squeezed out
  57. why can two elements never touch?
    joint capsule wont let any synovial fluid out. could only do this if it were to expand;;;;; therefore 2 bony elements will never touch
  58. what can be found in synovial joints?
    articular disks/rings
  59. ex of synovial joints?
    knee- made of disks and rings
  60. ligaments direction?
    criss cross in all different ways
  61. bands of dense regular connective tissue that is continuous with joint capsule
    ligaments
  62. ligaments can be found?
    in thickenings in wall of joint capsule
  63. ligaments can either be ?
    in or out of joint capsule
  64. internal ligaments ex?
    knee
  65. where ligaments cross, sets up?
    a point of tension
  66. problem with ligaments
    where they cross can set up a point of intersection
  67. like a pillow placed between areas where ligaments would rub one another or tendons
    bursae
  68. bursae are?
    slippery and have lots of pressure on them
  69. when bursae become inflamed causing pain
    bursitis
  70. ex of where bursae can be found?
    sits on patella
  71. blood and nerve supply in synovial joints can be ?
    very rich
  72. why does having multiple blood vessels and nerves going to synovial joints protect against injury?
    have multiple bc its better than only having one if one were to become injured
  73. blood and nerve supply works so well bc?
    it is the collects sensory info constantly
  74. monitors body parts
    proprioreception
  75. the largest sensory input sent to brain
    proprioreception
  76. also the largest output of brain is in response to this
    proprioreception

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