lab values

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    ØMCV- decrease- iron deficiency anemia/Thalessemia, lead poisoning

    ØMCV – increase- pernicious anemia and folic acid anemia

    ØMCH- increased or decreased related to anemia's

    ØMCHC-decreased related to anemia
  2. ØNeutrophils
    Respond rapidly to the inflammatory and tissue injury sites

    • Segments are mature neutrophils and bands
    • are immature ones that multiply quickly during an acute infection.  Immature neutrophils (bands) do not function as well as segments.

    • “Shift to the left”
    • seen in appendicitis, pyelonephritis, cellulities, septicemia.
  3. Lymphocyte
    • Increase with viral infections
    • Examples: Childhood illnesses, Influenza, viral
    • hepatitis, monomucleosis.
  4. Eosinophils

    • ¨Counteract the effect of inflammatory chemicals released during the allergic response.
    • ¨Hay fever, asthma, skin disorders.

    ¨Parasistic infestations

    ¨Autoimmune diseases ¨i.e. Lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroiditis.
  5. Monocytes

    ¨After several days of active infections/inflammation

    • ¨Note- not the first line of
    • defense
  6. Basophils
    • ¨Very few conditions lower the count, increase level maybe related to alterations in
    • bone marrow production. i.e. leukemia
  7. ESR Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
    Usually used to assist with acute inflammatory response
  8. INR Chart

    hip surgery

    Prevention of DVT  

    Cardiac Stents
    • INR
    • 2.0-3.0

    • INR-
    • 2.5-4.0

    • INR
    • 3.0-4.5
  9. Urinalysis
    • Color-light yellow to dark amber-
    • Medications can change the color of the urine

    • Beets or rhubarb purulent matter gives the urine a cloudy appearance. Blood makes
    • urine dark and smoky looking

    Odor-Fresh urine sample with ammonia could be UTI

    Ammonia odor can develop if urine is allowed to sit around

    PH of urine- Urine tends to be acidic related to diet. Meat, eggs contribute to the acid.

    • Fruits and veggies contribute to an alkaline urine- Alkaline urine promotes the growth
    • of certain organisms in urine.

    Specific gravity- hydration of the body

    Urobilinogen-if positive- biliary obstruction, liver disease, cholelithiasis

    Blood is positive- trauma to kidneys, renal disease, infection, cancer

    Protein- assessing primarily for albumin in the urine

    Renal disease, diabetics, exercise, stress

    Ketones- acid

    Nitrite- if UTI, nitrites will be positive

    Leukocyte Esterase if UTI, will be positive

    RBC- only an occasional RBC < 2-3 per high power field

    • WBC
    • There should only be a few WBC 4-5 per high power field, if elevated- UTI,
    • strenuous exercise

    TNTC too numerous to count
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lab values
lab values
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