A&P 1 Exam 2 (part 4)
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A&P 1 Exam 2 (part 4)
exam part fall 2014
Muscle : Microanatomy Fall 2014
muscles can only generate a force through?
muscles are organs that either?
move skeletal system
affect and change shape
move skeletal system?
move bones and are found lying alongside and attached to bones
muscles affect change and shape?
move hollow organs and are found embedded in the walls of hollow organs
muscles are made of more than just?
as organs, muscles can consist of?
blood vessels in muscles are used?
muscle fibers are aka
since muscle fibers are elongated cells, the longer the cell? it can only shorten along?
longer it can contract
axis in single direction
muscle fibers, contractile?
can shorten and change shape
muscle fibers, conductive?
conducting electrical impulse that generates force and specific times and at specific amounts it turns on and off at will
creates rapid communication, which is a property of cell membrane
conductive muscle fibers
placement of muscle fibers is?
muscle is packed with these
smaller structures that make up myofibrils
thick filaments are made up of?
thin filaments are made up of?
the interaction between ____ creates?
thick and thin filaments
cell membrane in muscle fibers, structure that conducted
cytoplasm inside muscle fiber
3 types of muscle tissues
for all muscle tissue, the basic tissue type is?
striated muscle is aka
structure and shape of smooth muscle?
cells are spindle
what does spindle shape look like?
wide in center and thinner as they go to ends
in a smooth muscle the nucleus is located?
centrally and is oval shape bc is mirrors the cell shape by being elongated
in a smooth muscle you need?
grouping or collections to get anything done
how things are grouped/organized in important
2 ways to group up smooth muscle?
put in bundle
ex of fascicle
erector pili muscle
embedded in walls of hollow organs
with sheets, there are always atleast ___ that are separated by a thin layer of ___ ___
by combo of contractions in both sheets, what happens?
a force can be generated in either direction
ex of sheet arrangement in smooth muscle?
outside layer that is a layer of covering and lining epithelium
come from subconscious regions of brain
autonomic nervous system controls ?
smooth muscle is aka
what happens if we initiate contraction in one fiber?
all will begin to contract
contraction spreads from?
cell to cell to cell
initiate contraction by ?
stretching cell out, which is a response to mechanical force
ex of contraction?
in gut tube a bolus of food pushes out on wall and responsed by squeezing in
which type of muscle contracts slowest?
since smooth muscle contracts slowest, is means it has a ?
contraction can be sustained for a long period of time
a slower response also means/
resistance to fatigue, so it takes longer to depleat energy sources
smooth muscle fibers are
resistant to fatigue
striated muscle fibers shape?
typical length of striated muscles?
1 - 40mm
striated muscle fibers will?
run the entire length of muscle
striated muscle fibers diameter?
are 1 - 40 um in diameter
in a cross section, striated muscles are
very very narrow long threadlike cells
where is nucleus located in striated muscle?
nuclei are right underneath cell membrane
striated muscle fibers are?
have more than 1 nucleus (multinucleated)
how do striated muscle fibers become elongated?
they fused with other cells, which is why they have more than 1 nuclei
the number of nuclei is tied to the ?
length of muscle fiber
how many nuclei are there per mm of length?
1 mm = how many nuclei? 2 mm = ?
shape of striated muscle fiber?
striated muscle have what type of pattern?
banding pattern in striated muscle?
made of dark and light bands
packs interior of cells and has banding pattern (inside striated muscle fiber)
creates repeating subunits that go from z-line to z-line and has dark and light bands
repeating unit from z-line to z-line
sarcomere is what gives
made of thin and thick filaments
thick filaments of striated muscle fiber ?
center, dark bands
thick filaments of striated muscle fibers?
extrend from z line to z line to center of sarcomere
banding pattern is created due to ?
difference in thickness of filaments
A bands that make location of myosin
I bands that are caused by lack of myosin
thin filaments overlap with?
z-line goes down center of?
1/2 of I band is found in ? while the other half is found in?
during contraction of striated muscle fibers what happens?
thick bands move together, thin move towards center and pull z line in, making it shorter
A band is found in?
entirely in 1 sarcomere
striated muscular unit of contraction
during contraction of striated muscle fibers?
width of A -band and I -band change, only 1 will shorten
contraction of striated muscle fibers?
there is interaction between thin and thick filaments