A&P 1 Exam 2 (part 4)

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melissag94
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285595
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A&P 1 Exam 2 (part 4)
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2014-10-12 14:53:54
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exam part fall 2014
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Muscle : Microanatomy Fall 2014
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  1. muscles can only generate a force through?
    contraction
  2. muscles are organs that either?
    • move skeletal system
    • affect and change shape
  3. move skeletal system?
    move bones and are found lying alongside and attached to bones
  4. muscles affect change and shape?
    move hollow organs and are found embedded in the walls of hollow organs
  5. muscles are made of more than just?
    muscle tissues
  6. as organs, muscles can consist of?
    • connective tissue
    • blood vessels
    • nerves
    • muscle tissue
  7. blood vessels in muscles are used?
    to control
  8. muscle fibers are aka
    muscle cells
  9. elongated cells
    muscle fibers
  10. since muscle fibers are elongated cells, the longer the cell? it can only shorten along?
    • longer it can contract
    • axis in single direction
  11. muscle fibers, contractile?
    can shorten and change shape
  12. muscle fibers, conductive?
    conducting electrical impulse that generates force and specific times and at specific amounts it turns on and off at will
  13. creates rapid communication, which is a property of cell membrane
    conductive muscle fibers
  14. placement of muscle fibers is?
    important
  15. muscle is packed with these
    myofibrils
  16. smaller structures that make up myofibrils
    myofilaments
  17. thick filaments are made up of?
    myosin
  18. thin filaments are made up of?
    actin
  19. the interaction between ____ creates?
    • thick and thin filaments
    • contraction
  20. cell membrane in muscle fibers, structure that conducted
    sarcolemma
  21. cytoplasm inside muscle fiber
    sarcoplasm
  22. 3 types of muscle tissues
    • striated muscle
    • cardiac muscle
    • smooth muscle
  23. for all muscle tissue, the basic tissue type is?
    muscle
  24. striated muscle is aka
    skeletal muscle
  25. structure and shape of smooth muscle?
    • elongated cells
    • cells are spindle
  26. what does spindle shape look like?
    wide in center and thinner as they go to ends
  27. in a smooth muscle the nucleus is located?
    centrally and is oval shape bc is mirrors the cell shape by being elongated
  28. in a smooth muscle you need?
    • grouping or collections to get anything done
    • how things are grouped/organized in important
  29. 2 ways to group up smooth muscle?
    • fascicles
    • sheets
  30. put in bundle
    fascicle
  31. ex of fascicle
    erector pili muscle
  32. embedded in walls of hollow organs
    sheets
  33. with sheets, there are always atleast ___ that are separated by a thin layer of ___ ___
    • 2
    • connective tissue
  34. by combo of contractions in both sheets, what happens?
    a force can be generated in either direction
  35. ex of sheet arrangement in smooth muscle?
    gut tube
  36. outside layer that is a layer of covering and lining epithelium
    serosa
  37. come from subconscious regions of brain
    contraction
  38. autonomic nervous system controls ?
    contraction
  39. smooth muscle is aka
    involuntary muscle
  40. what happens if we initiate contraction in one fiber?
    all will begin to contract
  41. contraction spreads from?
    cell to cell to cell
  42. initiate contraction by ?
    stretching cell out, which is a response to mechanical force
  43. ex of contraction?
    in gut tube a bolus of food pushes out on wall and responsed by squeezing in
  44. which type of muscle contracts slowest?
    smooth muscle
  45. since smooth muscle contracts slowest, is means it has a ?
    slower response
  46. slower response?
    contraction can be sustained for a long period of time
  47. a slower response also means/
    resistance to fatigue, so it takes longer to depleat energy sources
  48. smooth muscle fibers are
    resistant to fatigue
  49. striated muscle fibers shape?
    very long
  50. typical length of striated muscles?
    1 - 40mm
  51. striated muscle fibers will?
    run the entire length of muscle
  52. striated muscle fibers diameter?
    are 1 - 40 um in diameter
  53. in a cross section, striated muscles are
    very very narrow long threadlike cells
  54. where is nucleus located in striated muscle?
    • peripherally located
    • nuclei are right underneath cell membrane
  55. striated muscle fibers are?
    have more than 1 nucleus (multinucleated)
  56. how do striated muscle fibers become elongated?
    they fused with other cells, which is why they have more than 1 nuclei
  57. the number of nuclei is tied to the ?
    length of muscle fiber
  58. how many nuclei are there per mm of length?
    35
  59. 1 mm = how many nuclei? 2 mm = ?
    • 35 nuclei
    • 70 nuclei
  60. shape of striated muscle fiber?
    cylindrical
  61. striated muscle have what type of pattern?
    banding
  62. banding pattern in striated muscle?
    made of dark and light bands
  63. packs interior of cells and has banding pattern (inside striated muscle fiber)
    myofibrils
  64. creates repeating subunits that go from z-line to z-line and has dark and light bands
    sarcomere
  65. repeating unit from z-line to z-line
    sarcomere
  66. sarcomere is what gives
    banding
  67. made of thin and thick filaments
    myofilaments
  68. thick filaments of striated muscle fiber ?
    • aka myosin
    • center, dark bands
  69. thick filaments of striated muscle fibers?
    extrend from z line to z line to center of sarcomere
  70. banding pattern is created due to ?
    difference in thickness of filaments
  71. dark bands?
    A bands that make location of myosin
  72. light bands?
    I bands that are caused by lack of myosin
  73. thin filaments overlap with?
    myosin
  74. z-line goes down center of?
    I band
  75. 1/2 of I band is found in ? while the other half is found in?
    • 1 sarcomere
    • another sarcomere
  76. during contraction of striated muscle fibers what happens?
    thick bands move together, thin move towards center and pull z line in, making it shorter
  77. A band is found in?
    entirely in 1 sarcomere
  78. striated muscular unit of contraction
    sarcomere
  79. during contraction of striated muscle fibers?
    width of A -band and I -band change, only 1 will shorten
  80. contraction of striated muscle fibers?
    there is interaction between thin and thick filaments

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