A&P 1 exam 2 (part 5)

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A&P 1 exam 2 (part 5)
2014-10-12 17:13:12
fall 2014 tissues

Connective Tissues Fall 2014
Show Answers:

  1. connective tissue has?
    lots of material between cells
  2. common characteristics of connective tissue?
    • extensive intracellular material
    • derived from mesenchyme
  3. mesenchyme is?
    a type of embryonic tissue
  4. all other tissue can be found in?
    connective tissue proper
  5. the give that holds all tissue together, underlies all epithelial and can be found throughout entire body
    connective tissue proper
  6. locations of connective tissue proper?
    found everywhere
  7. function of connective tissue proper?
    • support
    • convey body fluids
    • defense
  8. loose connective tissue proper is used for?
    • collagen fibers
    • reticular fibers
    • elastic fibers
    • fibroblasts
  9. collagen fibers come in ?
    individuals or bundles
  10. ground substance of loose connective tissue proper?
    gel like substance that acts like a sponge that absorbs tissue fluid and holds it in place
  11. structures used to convey body fluids in connective tissue proper?
    ground substance
  12. reduce tension and help LCTP from being pulled apart
    collagen fibers
  13. provide additional support for structures that pass through LCTP
    reticular fibers
  14. loose network that allows LCTP to have give and be pushed/pulled around but then will go back to original shape
    elastic fibers
  15. elongated cells with very narrow elongated nucleus that produces collage, reticular and elastic fibers
  16. LCTP structures used for defense?
    • histiocytes
    • plasma cells
    • mast cells
    • eosinophils and neutrophils
  17. all cells are involved in defense except for?
  18. difference between LCTP and DCTP?
    number of collagen fibers
  19. fibers are arranged in all different directions
    irregular dense connective tissue proper
  20. orientation of ___ __ is important
    collagen fibers
  21. ex of  irregular DCTP?
    skin bc its pulled all different directions
  22. know direction tension is going to come from
    regular DCTP
  23. in regular DCTP all the fibers are?
    aligned therefore they run in the same direction
  24. regular DCTP is found?
    • on attachment of bones and ligaments
    • also tendons
  25. regular DCTP only resists tension in direction of?
    ligament itself
  26. muscles contract in 1 direction
  27. ex of fatty connective tissue proper?
    adipose tissue
  28. cartilage and bone are both?
    • specialized the bear weight
    • firm intracellular matrix
  29. cartilage is more ___ than bone
  30. bone has more ___ that cartilage
  31. characteristics of all cartilage?
    • firm intracellular matrix
    • chondocytes
    • perichondrium
    • avascular
    • no nerves
  32. cells cant move through?
    firm intracellular matrix
  33. cartilage cells
  34. physical space that chondrocytes occupy, aka little house
  35. outside layer of cartilage
  36. small
  37. nervous system doesn't penetrate, therefore when cartilage is damaged it does not?
    hurt bc there are no nerves
  38. cartilage is avascular which means?
    circulatory system doesn't protrude it
  39. moisture in cartilage comes from?
    gas exchange between cells move by diffusion
  40. type of macrophage, where if invaded by bacteria they will phagocytes the bacteria and kill it with lysosomes
  41. target foreign cells in body
    plasma cells
  42. produce and secrete hepanin and histamine
    mast cells
  43. mast cells prevent?
    blood from clotting (heparin)
  44. mast cells also make it more permeable which is
  45. result of mast cell activity?
    red swollen area
  46. white blood cells normally found in vascular system
    eosinophils and neutrophils
  47. when these are attacked, they leave the vascular system and enter infected area
    eosiniphils and neutrophils
  48. phagocytize bacteria or foreign agent, they destroy it
  49. ex of dead neutrophils?
  50. what happens when cartilage dries?
    the water evaporates, drys up and falls off
  51. in hyaline cartilage the matrix has a ?
    uniform appearance
  52. when illuminated under microscope it glows
    hyaline cartilage
  53. hyaline cartilage is the ?
    most common type of cartilage
  54. the younger you are, the more ____ cartilage that you have bc it depends on age
  55. where is hyaline cartilage found?
    medial end of ribs, larynx or voice box, epithesial plate in long bones (which is present through end of puberty)
  56. where is elastic cartilage found?
    in outer ear
  57. inorganic bone?
    gives strength, rack like structures
  58. organic bone?
    gives flexibility, collage fibers
  59. stronger that cartilage
  60. increase number of collagen fibers which allows it to resist compression
  61. fibrocartilage is used as?
    a shock absorber
  62. fibrocartilage is found?
    along vertebral column, left and right pubic bone
  63. intervertebral discs act as
    shock absorbers
  64. make up of bone?
    • 65% inorganic crystals
    • 35% organic material
  65. what happens when bone dries?
    loose flexibility
  66. osteoblasts that got trapped by matrix, also located in middle of matrix
  67. bones are constantly changing and being remodeled due to ?
    osteoblasts and osteocytes
  68. bones are changing by ?
    getting stronger or thinner
  69. intramembraneous ossification forms?
    membrane bone
  70. intramembrous ossification is
    a simpler process
  71. endochondral ossification is a
    complex process
  72. endochondral ossification forms?
    endochondral bone
  73. 2 types of bone development
    • intramembranous ossification
    • endochondral ossification
  74. most bones are formed by
    endochondral ossification
  75. scar left by epithesial plate after puberty
    epithesial line
  76. dense bone, very dense and don't see internal structure
    compact bone
  77. made of spicules with spaces inbetween and found on inside
    spongy bones
  78. spongy bone?
    seems weak but engineered along lines of stress which means its fairly strong but light
  79. where is spongy bone found?
    in areas that undergo most stress
  80. covers articular surfaces
    articular cartilage
  81. hollow space in bone, doesn't effect strength of bone
    medullary cavity
  82. dense fibrous layer that covers bone, organic component that cracks and falls when bone dries
  83. has a shiny sheen on fresh bone, dull on dry bone
  84. lines inside of medullary cavity
  85. house in lacunae
  86. matrix appears cracked, but theyre little canals
  87. mechanism for osteocytes to communicate through and is embedded in matrix
  88. found on surface of matrix
    osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  89. matrix forming cells
  90. cells that break down and remove matrix
  91. in intramembranous ossification bone is formed
    directly from source (mesenchyme)
  92. while bone process is going on, this is being constructed
    woven bone in intramembraneous ossification
  93. ex of intramembraneous ossification
    • clavicle
    • skull
    • face
  94. in endochondral ossification what happens first? then?
    form model out of cartilage and then covert to bone and cell
  95. periocondrium is converted to periosteum when ? aka bone collar
    osteoblasts start depositing bone matrix
  96. osteoblasts that are on the inside, deposit bone on the
  97. through process with osteoblasts, the whole shaft?
    turns from cartilage to bone
  98. primary?
    what bone looks like at birth
  99. secondary?
    epiphasees ossified, when done cartilage is at end and epitheisal plate
  100. cartilage at end of bone?
    articular cartilage
  101. more cartilage is produces at
    epithesial plate
  102. bone growth - cartilage deposit?
    add cartilage and turn into bone at some time, elongating diaphysis
  103. bone growth- zone of erosion
    erode away new bone in cavity which increases length of diaphysis as a hollow structure
  104. rate of producing cartilage at end of puberty, begin to calcify cartilage quicker than its being made
    rate of mineralizing cartilage
  105. vascular tissue is ?
  106. once cartilage in bone is gone you ?
    can no longer have any bone growth --- end of puberty
  107. bone increase in diameter by ?
    adding material to in and outside through osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  108. in blood, intracellular matrix is?
  109. vascular tissue is made up of?
    • plasma
    • formed elements
  110. 3 formed elements in vascular tissue?
    • erythrocytes
    • leucocytes
    • thrombocytes
  111. red blood cells, not true cells bc they lack a nucleus
  112. general function of erythrocytes?
    • gas exchange
    • delivery oxygen to take away CO2
  113. white blood cells, true cells, part of immune system
  114. function of leucocytes?
    defends against foreign organisms
  115. platelets, not true cells, fragments of a cell
  116. basic tissue type?
    connective tissue