A&P 1 exam 2 (part 6)

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melissag94
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285628
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A&P 1 exam 2 (part 6)
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2014-10-12 17:59:06
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exam fall 2014
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Human Embryonic Development Human Embryonic Development 2 Fall 2014
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  1. acquiring specialization, but loose potential
    differentiation
  2. in differentiation, once you start down one path ?
    you cant go back
  3. path of embryonic development order?
    • zygote
    • embryonic
    • ectoderm
    • nervous system
    • CNS
    • brain
  4. embryonic development?
    has specialization and cant give rise to any other cell
  5. occurs during 1st 8 weeks, ground work has been layed for systems to develop
    embryonic period
  6. formation and maturing of systems, last 32 weeks, period of growth
    fetal period
  7. during the embryonic period what is developed?
    basic body plan is established
  8. body tube consists of?
    • skin
    • coelom
    • serous membrane
    • body wall
  9. wraps body
    skin
  10. empty space inside tube
    coelom
  11. epithelium that line coelom
    serous membrane
  12. sanwhiched between skin and serous membrane
    body wall
  13. gut tube is found?
    inside coelom
  14. gives rise to internal organs, systems are derived from gut tube
    serous membrane
  15. gut tube is covered with? which is a
    • serous membrane
    • epithelial layer
  16. dorsal body wall ?
    nervous system inside vertebral column which is located in midline
  17. midline of dorsal body wall is made up of?
    vertebrae and nerve cord
  18. where are kidneys found?
    embedded in dorsal body wall behind coelom
  19. why are kidneys special?
    they come from different location that the others, that come from gut tube
  20. limbs aren't tubes bc?
    they have skeletal system down the middle
  21. limbs are made of
    • skin
    • muscle bone
  22. skin of limbs?
    outside layer
  23. muscle of limbs?
    in between skin and skeletal
  24. bone of limbs?
    in middle
  25. skeletal is aka
    bone
  26. early events of development?
    • ovulation
    • fertilization
    • cleavage
    • implantation
  27. supporting structure
    follicle
  28. largest cell found in humans
    ovum
  29. fertilized egg in coelom
    epitopic pregnancy
  30. sperm changes of succeeding?
    • very small
    • millions are produced every day
  31. only cell with flagella, used to move
    sperm
  32. sperm head? tail?
    • head carries DNA
    • tail is the flagellum
  33. fertilized egg
    zygote
  34. every time cell divides, it is only?
    1/2 the size which dramatically alters cell physiology
  35. cell division is an
    embryo
  36. cell divides but 2 daughter cells are only 1/2 size
    early cleavage
  37. flow of early cleavage?
    • zygote
    • 2 cell
    • 4 cell
    • 8 cell
    • 16 cell
  38. embryo is a solid ball of about 100 cells
    morula
  39. take 4 days to get to this stage
    late cleavage
  40. ball of cells develop a cavity, hollow cell
    blastocyst
  41. arrives at uterus for implantation
    blastocyst
  42. surrounded by single layer of cells
    trophoblast
  43. space that trophoblast encloses
    blastocoel
  44. clump of cells inside trophoblast
    inner cell mass (ICM)
  45. blastocyst is made of?
    • trophoblast
    • blastocoel
    • inner cell mass
  46. embryo only develops?
    some of the cells of ICM
  47. what does trophoblast contribute to?
    development of placenta (extracellular)
  48. what happens during implantation?
    blastocyst arrives at uterus and needs to implant, does this by burrowing into side of wall of uterus and begins to set up placenta
  49. what happens immediately once blastocyst burrows into wall of uterus?
    begins to set up placenta
  50. develops from some cells of bilaminar disk? what are others known as?
    • embryo
    • extraembryonic cells
  51. inner cell mass has developed?
    2 spaces surrounded by cells
  52. groove cut down middle of ectoderm
    primitive streak
  53. slight swelling of cells at primitive streak
    Hensons node
  54. don't need yolk bc nutrients come from placenta, do need cells that make up ____ ___
    yolk sac
  55. double layer of cells?
    bilaminar disk
  56. has a cellular grade organization where tissue is organic
    bilaminar disk
  57. surround amniotic sac
    ectoderm
  58. surrounds yolk sac
    endoderm
  59. both are tissues and primary germ layers
    ectoderm and endoderm
  60. cells of ectoderm migrate to ?
    primitive streak
  61. individualy separate off epithelial sheet they migrate out laterally and a 3rd layer between ectoderm and endoderm
    cells of ectoderm migrate to primitive streak
  62. once ectoderm migrates to primitive streak, then you have trilaminar disk
  63. primary germ layer
    mesoderm
  64. layer between ecto and endoderm
    mesoderm
  65. freely migrating embryonic cells
    mesenchyme
  66. not all mesoderm is ____ and not all _____ is mesoderm
    • mesenchyme
    • mesenchyme
  67. trilaminar disk is made of?
    • ectoderm
    • endoderm
    • mesoderm
  68. ectoderm of trilaminar disk forms?
    nervous system
  69. endoderm of trilaminar disk creates?
    gut tube and internal organs
  70. mesoderm of trilaminar disk creates?
    muscular and skeletal system
  71. the 1st structures seen found in mesoderm are ?
    along midline
  72. 1st structure formed from mesoderm?
    notochord
  73. notochord is formed right down?
    midline of embryo
  74. condensed solid rod
    notochord
  75. a temporary embryonic structure that acts as a structural, rigid support
    notochord
  76. notochord is eventually replaced by?
    vertebral column
  77. seperates mesoderm into 2 groups
    notochord
  78. what is derived from notochordal cells
    intervertebral disks
  79. in differentiation of mesoderm cells adjacent to notochord begin to condense into solid blocks aka
    somites
  80. mesoderm found in somites
    somatic mesoderm
  81. mesoderm thins out into a thin sheet
    intermediate mesoderm
  82. undergoes differentiation and develops space that is separated into 2 parts
    lateral plate mesoderm
  83. 2 types of lateral plate mesoderm?
    • somatic
    • splanchnic
  84. pressed up against ectoderm
    somatic mesoderm
  85. pressed up against endoderm
    splanchnic mesoderm
  86. space between somatic and splanchnic mesoderm
    coelom
  87. folds that continue to elevate towards a point and more directed towards midline
    neural groove
  88. at the neural grooves, cells beings to
    reconnect
  89. gives rise to central nervous system
    neural tube
  90. form mesenchyme at same time as
    neural tube
  91. the neural tube is arranged as?
    epithelial, one continuous structure
  92. different cellular organization than tube, freely migrating embryonic cells and is not attached to other cells
    neural crest
  93. spread out all through body
    neural crest
  94. the neural crest is important to the formation of ?
    development and some skeletal elements, also forms ALL sensory nerve cells
  95. at nervous system stage, embryo begins to ?
    roll into tube by closing in lateral body wall
  96. closing in wall and becomes wrapped with ectoderm, while endoderm forms a tube inside
    lateral body wall
  97. close in head and tail end, the rolling comes in from all directions converging on ventral sides of embryo
    anterior and posterior body wall
  98. once body shape is formed, at this stage we have?
    body organization--- tube within a tube design
  99. ectoderm gives rise to
    epidermis of skin and skin glands, outerlayer of gut tube
  100. endoderm forms?
    • tube with in tube (gut tube)
    • inner layer of gut tube
    • digestive system
    • respiratory system (lungs)
  101. blocks of mesoderm that differentiate into 2 distinct populations of cells as ultimate fate
    soomites
  102. 3 distinct populations of cells that somites create?
    • dermatone
    • myotome
    • sclertome
  103. leave somite, migrate out and spread out underneath ectoderm
    dermatone (lateral)
  104. what does dermatone give rise to?
    dermis
  105. both sides migrate towards center and surround neural tube
    sclerotone (medial)
  106. sclerotone gives rise to?
    vertebrae
  107. when notochord is replaced, what is the only remnant left?
    intervertebral disks
  108. cells spread out and give rise to muscles in body wall
    myotome
  109. most is lost, but posterior section gives rise to kidneys and gonads
    intermediate mesoderm
  110. lateral plate mesoderm is differentiated into ?
    2 as ultimate fate
  111. gives rise to muscles of gut and serous lining of gut
    splanchnic mesoderm
  112. serous lining of body wall
    somatic mesoderm
  113. space between splanchnic and somatic mesoderm
    coelom
  114. limb buds?
    outpocketing
  115. ectoderm limb buds?
    gives ride to epidermis, form pockets
  116. mesoderm of limb buds
    migrate into pockets and give rise to muscle and bone and dermis
  117. after 40 days what is formed?
    hand --- has paddle like appearance
  118. after 54 days what is formed?
    hand is recognizable

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