Gin and Genever

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Author:
mikedutch
ID:
285635
Filename:
Gin and Genever
Updated:
2014-10-12 18:59:59
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WSET
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Description:
WSET Diploma Unit 4 - Spirits
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  1. Name the 4 categories of gin in the EU
    • Juniper flavored spirits
    • Gin
    • Distilled Gin
    • London (Dry) Gin
  2. What is gin?
    • Made from 96% abv highly rectified spirit that has been flavored with juniper and other botanicals
    • Min 37.5% abv and taste predominantly of juniper
    • Natural or nature-identical flavor may be used
    • No other production methods are specified
    • Blended and reduced to bottling strength
    • Not aged
  3. What is distilled gin?
    • Must be made by re-distilling a 96% HRS with juniper berries and other natural botanicals
    • Min 37.5% abv and taste predominantly of juniper
    • Natural or nature-identical flavor may be added to distillates
    • Bottled by adding HRS and/or water
  4. What is London Gin/London Dry Gin?
    A distilled gin except no flavors or sweeteners can be added to the distillate
  5. Does London Dry Gin have a geographic restriction?
    No, it can be made anywhere
  6. Does Plymouth Gin have a geographic restriction?
    Yes, it can only be by one distillery in Plymouth
  7. What is a juniper-flavored spirit?
    • Made from 96% HRS or a grain spirit
    • Min 30% abv and taste predominantly of juniper
    • Natural or nature-identical flavor may be used
  8. Describe the history of gin
    • Originally a Dutch specialty
    • 1689: Spread to England with accession of William III of Orange; consumption spiraled out of control
    • 1751: gin production granted exclusively to large distillers
    • 1803: 9 producers own 90% London distilling capacity: Booth, Burnett, Gordon
    • 1830s: introduction of Coffey still and higher quality base spirit; London Dry Gin becomes England's national spirit
    • Exports to USA: perfect match for new craze called "cocktails"
    • 1960s: Gin declines as THE mixing spirit as Vodka rises
    • Mini-revival started ith first image-driven brand, Bombay SSapphire
    • New generation of gins appeals to bartenders looking for more flavors. Examples: Tangueray #10, Hendrick's, Martin Miller's, Blackood's Vintage
  9. What was the preferred style of gin in early 18th C England
    • Old Tom: a juniper-heavy, sweetened, pot still corn spirit
    • Haymans: the only UK producer today; sold as a distilled gin
  10. Where was the first dry (unsweetened) style of gin produced?
    Plymouth
  11. Name the predominant botanicals in gin
    • Juniper berry: from Italy or Balkans
    • Coriander seed: from Morocco (peppery), Eastern Europe/Russia (spicy), India (citric) used by every premium brand
    • Angelica root: musky, dry and woody aroma
    • Orris root: violet aroma; used to hold in more volatile aromatics
    • Dried lemon/orange peel: first aroma released when gin is diluted
    • Many other botanicals: angelica seed, cinnamon/cassia bark, almond, liquorice, nutmeg, caraway, cardamom
    • Hendrick's: rose petals and cucumber
    • Tangueray #10: whole citus fruits
  12. What is marzipan?
    Confection of sugar/honey and almond
  13. Is gin distilled?
    • Not always. If gin is distilled it is done in a pot still, typically copper.
    • HRS is diluted to 60% abv and heated with botanicals; collected at 80% abv.
  14. What factors affect the style and quality of a gin?
    • Shape and size of the pot still
    • Rate of distillation
    • Recipe (botanicals distilled together)
    • Botanicals in the still (put in water/alcohol mix or in a basket for lighter styles)
    • Cut points (citrus first, coriander, then angelica/orris roots
    • Maturation and finishing (gins reduced to <40% abv risk losing citric impact)
  15. Are most large gin brands made using gin concentrates?
    Yes
  16. Can you tell the difference between a gin made from concentrate and one that has not?
    No
  17. Describe gin concentrate
    • Made the same way as distilled gin but with a much great quantity of botanicals
    • Both water and HRS are used to reduce the concentrate to bottling strength
    • Gin includes about 4-5% gin concentrate
  18. Why are flavors added to distillates?
    • Some flavors are damaged by heat (e.g., cucumber)
    • Distiller may want an aroma to stand out
  19. What is a Fruit Gin?
    • A sweetened gin (thus a liqueur) with added fresh fruit (sloes, dmasons or citus) or fruit essence.
    • Some are made commercially (e.g., Plymouth and Gordoni's) but many are produced domestically.
  20. What is Jenever/Genever?
    • Juniper flavored spirit protected by a geographical indication
    • Production limited to Belgium, The Netherlands, and the very north of France
  21. What is moutwijn?
    • A low-strength grain spirit used to distill Jenever
    • "Mout" = Malt
    • Rich texture and diminishes Juniper aroma
  22. Name 3 classifications of Jenever
    • Jong (young) Jenever: <= 15% moutwijn, <= 10g/l sugar, colorless
    • Oude (old) Jenever: > 15% moutwijn, <= 20g/l sugar, may be colored with caramel
    • Graanjenever: Jong or Oude Jenever if HRS is, like moutwijn, made exclusively from grain

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