Defenitions (complete as of 10/12/14)

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Defenitions (complete as of 10/12/14)
2014-10-17 07:10:32

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  1. What is Abstract thinking?
    Abstract thinking is a level of thinking about things that is removed from the facts of the “here and now”, and from specific examples of the things or concepts being thought about.
  2. What is agraphia?
    Inability to write, cause by impairment of central nervous system processing(not by paralysis).
  3. What is a airplane splint?
    Conforming positioning splint that is applied after skin graft surgery. It stabilizes & maintains the shoulder in approximately 90 degrees of horizontal abduction.
  4. What is akathisia?
    Motor restlessness.
  5. What is akinesia?
    Inability to initiate movement.
  6. What is alexia?
    A condition of being unable to read.
  7. What is Alzheimer disease (AD)?
    Disabling neurological disorder that may be characterized by memory loss; disorientation; paranoia; hallucination; violent changes of mood; loss of ability to read, write, eat, or walk; and finally dementia.
  8. What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?
    A progressive neural disease that attacks the upper motor neurons in the medulla oblongata and the lower motor neurons of the spinal cord.
  9. What is a analysis of occupational performance?
    It is part of the evaluation process. Collecting information via assessment tools designed to observe, measure, & inquire about selected factors that support or hinder occupational performance.
  10. What is anaphylactic shock?
    A condition in which the flow of blood throughout the body becomes suddenly inadequate due to dilation of the blood vessels as a result of allergic reaction.
  11. What is agina?
    Chest pain due to insufficient flow of blood to the heart.
  12. What is ankylosis?
    A condition of the joints in which they become stiffened & nonfunctional.
  13. What is anomia?
    Loss of ability to name objects or to recognize or recall names; can be receptive or expressive
  14. What is anosmia?
    The loss of sense of smell.
  15. What is anoxemia and anoxia?
    • Anoxemia is the absence or deficiency of oxygen in the blood.
    • Anoxia is the absence or deficiency of oxygen in the tissues.
  16. What is aphasia?
    • Absence of cognitive language processing ability which results in deficits in speech, writing, or sign communication.
    • * Can be receptive, expressive, or both.
  17. What is apraxia?
    The Inability to motor plan, execute purposeful movement, manipulate objects, or use objects appropriately.
  18. What is arrhythmia?
    Variation from the normal rhythm, especially of the heartbeat.
  19. What is arthroplasty?
    Is a surgical replacement; formation or reformation of a joint; surgical reconstruction of a joint.
  20. What is akathisia?
    Motor restlessness. seen in mental patients.
  21. What is akinesa?
    The inability to initiate movement.
  22. What is Asperger's syndrome?
    asperger's syndrome is a severe & sustained impairment in social interaction & development of restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, & activities.
  23. What is asphyxia?
    A condition o insufficient oxygen.
  24. What is aspirate?
    To inhale vomitus, mucus, or food into the respiratory tract.
  25. What is associated movements/reactions?
    Ex Such as with hemi eating with unaffected hand while the affected hand does the same motion.
  26. What is association learning?
    Form of learning in which particular items or ideas are connected.
  27. What is astereognosis?
    The inability to discriminate shape, texture, weight, & size of objects.
  28. What is asymmetrical?
    Unequal in size and shape.
  29. What is asynergia?
    Lack of coordination among muscle groups; movements are jerky & uncoordinated; common in cerebellar diseases.
  30. What is ataxia?
    Poor balance & award movement; uncoordinated movement, especially with gait.
  31. What is Atherosclerosis?
    Deposits of fatty substance in arteries, veins, and the lymphatic system.
  32. What is atonic?
    Absence of muscle tone.
  33. What is atrophy?
    Due to lack of use or deficient nutrition, the decrease in size of a normally developed organ or tissue.
  34. What is ADD?
    Attention deficit disorder is the inability to focus attention & impulsiveness.
  35. What is an augmentative communication system?
    This is a device that increases a person's ability to communicate.(e.g. non-electronic devices such as communication boards or electronic devices usch as portable communication systems that allow the user to speak & print text).
  36. What is autism?
    A developmental disorder characterized by a severely reduced ability to communicate & emotionally relate to other people; self-absorption.
  37. What is autonomic dysreflexia?
    A life-threatening phenomenon that occurs in persons with spinal card injuries above T4 to T6 level. It is caused by a response from the autonomic nervous system to stimulus such as fecal mass, distended bladder, pain, or thermal stimuli.
  38. What is avocational?
    Leisure pursuits.
  39. What is the Behavioral Inattention Test(BIT)?
    This is an assessment use to determine negligence in areas representing activities of daily living. Subsets include eating a meal, dialing a phone, reading a menu, telling time, setting a clock, sorting coins, copying an address, & following a map.
  40. What is behavioral modification?
    The process of reinforcing desirable responses;food, praise , and tokens maybe used.
  41. What is Bell's palsy?
    This is a facial paralysis due to a functional disorder of the seventh cranial nerve.
  42. What bilateral integration?
    The ability to perform purposeful movements that requires interaction between both sides of the body in as smooth & refined manner.
  43. What is the Biomechanical approach?
    This approach concerns cardiopulmonary, integumentary, musculosketetal, and nervous system(except brain) impairments. Increased endurance, joint range of motion, & strength & reduce edema are the goals of the biomechanical approach.
  44. What is biopsychological assessment?
    This evaluation used to determine how the central nervous system influences behavior and to understand the relationship between physical state and thoughts, emotions, and behavior.
  45. What is bipolar disorder?
    A mood disorder marked by periods of mania alternating with longer periods of major depression.
  46. What is the Bobath method?
    A neurodevelopmental approach, used primarily with cerebral palsy patients/clients but also applicable to dealing with stroke, using involuntary(uncontrolled) responses to movement of the head & body(e.g., postural reflexes and equilibrium reactions) for purposes of modifying muscle tone or eliciting desired movements. The utilization of associated reactions is avoided; such movements are hypothesized to hamper progress beyond the stage in which reflexes and reactions dominate toward performance of normal, discrete voluntary movements. Supplemental proprioceptive stimuli (muscle stretch and "tapping") are used to facilitate and direct the individual's emerging responses to the head, neck, and body movement stimuli that elicit equilibrium reactions.
  47. What is body image?
    A subjective picture a person has of their physical appearance.
  48. What is body scheme?
    Acquiring an internal awareness of the body and the relationship of body parts to each other; perception of one's physical self through proprioceptive and interoceptive(Receptors activated by stimuli from within visceral tissues & blood tissues) sensations.
  49. What is the boutonniere deformity?
    Abnormality that results from interruption of the ulnar and median nerves at the wrist; it causes metacarpophalangeal joint hyperextension and IP joint flexion.
  50. What is bradycardia?
    Slowness of heartbeat.
  51. What is bradykinesia?
    Slowness of body movement and speech.
  52. What is Brown-Sequards's syndrome?
    One side of the spinal cord is damaged. On the same side as the lesion there are paralysis and deficits in kinesthesia(a persons sense in position, weight and movement in space) and proprioception(the awareness of posture and position in relation to the body. below the level of the lesion. On the other side there is a loss of temperature and pain sensation below the lesion.
  53. What is Brunnstrom?
    Occupational therapy treatment approach based on the use of limb synergies(fixed set of muscles contracting with a present sequence & time of contraction) & other available movement patterns in ADL. Classified in six stages of recovery from hemiplegia.
  54. What is agnosia?
    The inability to comprehend sensory information due to central nervous system damage.
  55. What is agonist & antagonist?
    • The muscle that is capable of providing the power so a bone can move.
    • The antagonist resists the action of the the primary mover(agonist).
  56. What is orthostatic hypotension or postural hypotension?
    Is an excessive drop in blood pressure that occurs upon assuming an upright position.

    * The most important precaution for the occupational therapist to observe are actvities that require sudden postural changes.