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what is a process that leads to the release of energy from energetically favorable reactions?
do energetically favorable reactions store energy temporarily for use by energetically unfavorable reactions?
oxidation of food molecules
what are two coupling enzymatic type reactions
- using enzyme for y-z in x-y reaction
- use activated carriers to carry over bond energy
what are activated carriers?
how do they work?
how do they store their energy?
what two things activated carriers can serve as?
small organic molecules that carry energy for energetically unfavored reactions or small organic molecules that contain one or more energy rich covalent bonds.
they diffuse rapidly and carry their bond energy from site of energy generation to where its needed for biosynthesis or energy-requiring cell activities.
easily exchangeable form, readily transferable chemical group or redly transferable electrons.
energy carriers and chemical carriers for biosynthetic reactions
three activated carriers?
atp, nadh, and nadph
The formation of an activated carrier is coupled to an energetically favorable or non favorable reaction?
energetically favorable reaction.
besides enzyme used to lower the activation energy of a reaction, what else do they do when it comes to released free energy?
energy capture is achieved by what means?How? What kind of carrier does the unfavorable reaction produce, fav or unfav?
they ensure that a large part of the free energy released is captured in a chemically useful form rather than wasted.
- coupled reactions
- by the favorable reaction used to drive an energetically favorable one by the favorable produces an activated carrier to drive the unfavorable.
after the unfavorable reaction receives the energy from the activated carrier, what does it become and what type of carrier is released?
- energetically favorable reaction
- inactive carrier
in cells, energy capture is achieved by coupling reactions, which requires what?
enzymes that produce the activated carriers
What type of a reaction is a phosphorylation reaction? And what does it form?
what is it important for?
- activating substrates
- key for intracellular signaling pathway
- mediate exchange of energy.
- supply energy for ion pumps
what is the energy stored in tap often harnessed to do?
- join two molecules together.
- give off energy to drive unfavorable reactions.
How does atp work from converting glutamic acid to glutamine?
- 1. glutamic acid is converted to a high energy phosphorylated intermediate by tap splitting into arp and phosphate attached to the glutamic acid in an activation step.
- 2. Reacts with ammonia to form glutamine in a condensation step giving up an inorganic phosphate from the attached phosphate ion.
nadh and nadph are both activated carriers of what?
they are specialized to carry what two things?together what do they form?
when the activated carriers pass their energy (in the form of hydride ion) to a donor molecule, what are they oxidized to?
- high-energy electrons and hydrogen atoms
- hydride ion
- nad+ and nadp+
How is nadph formed?
How is nap+ formed?What happens when the hydride ion is lost?
- 1. nadp+ is reduced by H- from substrate.
- 2. nadph gives up the H- in a subsequent reaction because the ring is more stable without it.
1. nadph gives up the hydride ion from the activated carrier and a proton is also donated from the solution to form the cholesterol molecule.
large negative free energy change.
Structural differences between nadph and nadh?What does that cause?
What does that do?
- Nadh does not have a phosphate group.
- A different shape.
- Bind as substrates to different enzymes and deliver high energy electrons to different molecules.
What are the functional differences between naph and nadh?
is the ratio of nad+/dadh high?
is the nadp+/nadph low?
Naph operates with enzymes that work with anabolic reactions, supplying the high-energy electrons needed to synthesize energy-rich biological molecules.
nadh operates as an intermediate in the catabolic system of reactions that generate tap through oxidation of food molecules.
What are the activated carriers for:
2. Electrons and hydrogens
3. Acetyl group
4. Carboxyl group
5. Methyl group
- Nadh, Napdh, Fadh
- Acetyl CoA
- Carboxylated biotin
- Uridine diphosphate glucose
Describe the structure of larger biomolecule transport carriers also called ribozymes.
- The CoA is the small part of the molecule.
- The rest consists of a large organic portion that is like a handle, facilitating the recognition of the carrier molecule by specific enzymes.
In cells, macromolecules are synthesized by what?
the synthesis of macromolecules require?
condensation and hydrolysis reactions.
input of energy from atp hydrolysis in a condensation reaction.