Eukaryotic Microorganisms 1/3

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Eukaryotic Microorganisms 1/3
2014-10-12 21:53:59
Parasites Fungi Protists
parasites,fungi protists
parasites, fungi, protists
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  1. unicellular and multicellular organisms
    cells that contain membrane bound nucleus
  2. microscopic
    kingdom protista and fungi
    eukaryotic microorganisms
  3. lives at the expense of a host
    some can cause disease (pathogens)

    the study of parasites
    --parasitic > non- parasitic organisms

  4. What are the organisms that can be considered as parasites?
    • protozoa
    • helminths
    • arthropods
    • viruses
    • bacteria
  5. What is the importance of parasitism?
    • - in world economy
    • ---prevent inhabitation of cultivable land
    • ---prevents raising of cattle/ other animals for food
  6. parasites that live on the surface of other organisms 
    ticks and lice
  7. live within the bodies of other organisms
    protozoa and worms
  8. must spend at least some of their life cycle or on a host (e.g. _____)

    normally free-living (e.g._______)
    • obligate parasites
    • protozoan that causes malaria invades RBCs

    • facultative parasites
    • fungi causing skin infections
  9. remain in or on a host once they have invaded it (e.g.____)

    feed on and then leave their hosts (e.g.____)

    invade an organism other than their normal host (e.g. ___ --> ___ --> ____ )
    • permanent parasites 
    • tape worm

    • temporary parasites
    • biting insects

    • accidental parasites
    • tick, dogs, humans
  10. Parasites can be divided according to the following:

    obligate and facultative parasites
    ecto and endoparasites
    permanent parasites, temporary parasites, accidental parasites
    • their location 
    • how they live
    • duration of association
  11. parasite itself having parasites, they can become ____

    agents of transmission
    organisms transferring parasites to a new host (e.g. ____)

    parasite goes through part of its life cycle

    parasite does not go through any part of its life cycle during transit (e.g. ______ )
    hyperparasitism, vectors

    mosquito (temporary parasite) harboring a malaria parasite

    biological vector, malaria mosquito

    mechanical vector, flies carry parasite eggs, bacteria or viruses from feces to human food
  12. What are the three classifications of hosts?
    1. definitive hosts (e.g. malaria parasite in mosquito)
    2. intermediate hosts (e.g. malaria parasit in humans)
    3. reservoir hosts (wild/ domestic animals)
    • 1. harbor parasite while it reproduces sexually
    • 2. harbor parasite during some other developmental stages
    • 3. infected organisms that make parasites available for transmission to other hosts
  13. refers to the range of different hosts in which a parasite can mature

    - mature in only one host
    (e.g. ______)
    - other parasites can mature in many different hosts
    host specificity 

    malaria parasite --> anopheles mosquitoes

    worm causing trichinosis --> any warm blooded animal
  14. What are the evading host defense mechanisms?
    • 1. encystment
    • 2. changing the parasites surface antigens
    • 3. causing the host's immune system to make antibodies that cannot react 
    • 4. invading host cells out of reach of defense mechanisms
  15. formation of an outer covering that protects against unfavorable environmental conditions

    help them attach to a host

    serve to transmit itself form one host to another
  16. faster than the host can make new antibodies

    _____ = molecules that elicit immunity
    _____ = molecules that recognize/ attack antigens
    Changing the parasite's surface antigens

    Causing the host's immune system to make antibodies that cannot react with the parasites antigens

    • antigens
    • antibodies
    multiple fission
    --- one cell gives rise to many cells (all are infective)

    • production of large #s of eggs
    • _____: one organism has both functional male and female reproductive systems
  18. Kingdom _____
    eukaryotic, bigger size than bacteria
  19. What is the importance of protists?
    • - food chain- some energy reaches humans
    • ---autotrophs
    • ---heterotrophs
    • ---decomposers
  20. - algae
    - photosynthetic
    - moist, sunny environments
    - cell walls and flagella
    - pigments
    plantlike protists