Repolarization of the nerve cell memrane is a result of the sodium potassium antiport pump which uses ATP to pump these two ions back to where they were before the depolarization.
Release of neurotransmitter from the terminal bouton vessicles involvesactivation of calmodulin by calcium ions; clamodulin, in turn does which of the following.
Directly activates protein kinase which phosphorylates (and therfore activates synapsins which cause exocytosis.
The purpose of the sodium channels inactivation gate is to do which of the following.
Prevent the membrane potential from getting to +66 Mv
Movement of the action potential along the neuron membrane (conduction( is made possible by which of the following:
Voltage gated ion channels
The function of phosphodiesterase in rods is to:
Convert cGMP into 5' GMP
Which of the following would be involved in the synaptic transmission resulting from acetylcholine attaching to a muscarinic receptor.
release of the beta/gamma subunit of the G protein complex which would move to and open an ion channel.
WHich of the following is the phospholipid that is cleaved by PLC:
Strychnine poisoning results in interference with the interaction between which of the following:
glycine with its chloride channel
After light is absorbed by rhodopsin, 11 cis retinene is converted to all-trans retinene and causes dissociation of G-proteins which in turn activate phosphodiesterase. As a consequence, c-GMP is converted to 5'-GMP which results in which of the following:
closing of the sodium channels and influx of sodium which causes depolarization of the photoreceptor cell
The function of receptors, whether they be in eyes, ears, taste buds, or olfactory receptors within the nasal cavity, is to convert stimuli into which of the following:
Action potentials, Nerve impulses
The simultaneous stimulation of multiple receptors on the neuronal membrane which allows sodium to enter the cell from different locations is known as:
Depolatization of the neuron membrane will result in conduction in which of the following circumstances:
A membrane potential of -55Mv causes opening of voltage gated sodium channels
which of the following results from the activation of alpha adrenergic receptors:
Activation of phospholipase C, and production of IP3
Graded potentials are most associated with which of the following:
Pre-trigger zone membrane and dendrites
Which of the following is an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the spinal chord:
If norepinephrine attaches to a beta-adrenergic receptor of a heart pacemaker cell, which of the following secondary messengers would be subsequently open channels that make the pacemaker depolarize faster:
Which of the following would likely be activated as a result of the stimulation of a beta adrenergic receptor:
activation of adenylate cyclase which produces cAMP is the resulto f the interaction of which of the following neurotransmitters with its receptor:
Norepinephrine with a beta receptor
Phagocytosis of debris or bacteria in the brain is a function of which of the following:
Which of the following is not a monamine neurotranmitter:
Glial cells which insulate peripheral nerve axons and which permit "saltatory conduction" are known as"
The result of a photon of light being absorbed by rhodopsin would be:
conversion of 11 cis-retinene into all trans-retinene and movement of transducins to and activation of PDE
Cholinesterase inhibitors would most likely:
enhance the effect of acetylcholine by increasing the probability of encountering receptor
which of the following best describes nicotinnic cholinergic receptors:
they are sodium/potassium channels
which of the following is both a neurotransmitter as well as a hormone:
The small space between nerve cells which must be bridged by neurotransmitter substance are known as:
WHich of the following would definitely have an inhibitory effect on a post-synaptic neuron:
conduction in which the action potential "jumps" from node of Ranvier to node of Ranvier is known as continuous conduction
Contraction of the ciliary muscles in the eye would cause the suspensory ligaments to relax, thus enabling the eye to accomodate for near vision.
Involvement of protein kinase activation by cAMP is a step in the transmission mediated by which of the following neurotransmitters:
Movement of an impulse along the membrane of an axon would occur faste in which of the following
The process by which information enters a cell and directs cellular metabolism as a result of a hormone or neurotransmitter attaching to its receptor is known as:
Nodes of Ranvier are most closely associated with which of the following:
saltatory conduction, and myelinated axons
After performing its function, which of the following would be likely to breakdown a catecholamine neurotranmitter in the presynaptic cell:
The post-synaptic receptors are frequently ion channels. These channels are of which of the following types:
ligand or chemically gated
Degredation of the myelin sheath is characteristic of which of the following:
Movement of sodium ions into the cell (depolarization) followed by movement of potassium inos to the outside of the cell (repolarization) is a process known as an:
WHich of the following would be a secondary messenger resulting from norepinephrine attaching to its alpha receptor:
Life is wonderful now that I know more about the nervous system:
At the terminal bouton of the pre-synaptic neuron, the function of calmodulin is to :
Activate protein kinases
certainly one of the functions of teh myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system is to allow for more rapid conduction of neurological impulses:
The proper function of gated ion channels is of critical importance to the propagation of an action ptential:
Stimulation of photopsin in rods results in color vision which can be detected only with sufficient threshold intesities of light.
Influx of calcium inos into the axon terminal bouton ultimately results in release of neurotransmitters substances into the synapse during synaptic transmission by stimulating exocytosis of vessicles and release of neurotransmitter from the nerve cell:
A simple monosynaptic reflex are (like the stretch reflex) involves a single sensory neuron which brings information from some sensory receptor to a single motor neuron with which it synapses in the CNS and which brings information away from the CNS to some effector like a muscle
Movement of sensory information from some cutaneous recetor into the dorsal horn of the spinal cord followed by efferent motor information leaving the spinal cord and the subsequent activation of a muscle results in a response known as a reflex.
which of the following enzymes is responsible for converting cGMP into 5'-GMP in rods which terminates the dark current:
WHich of the following accurately describes a terminal bouton:
It contains pre-synaptic vesicles which release neurotransmitter as a result of an influx of calcium ions
Which of the following would cause an IPSP at the post-synaptic membrane during transmission:
Acetylcholine attacing to a muscarinic receptor
The function of astrocytes is to:
Stimulate and maintain the blood brain barrier
which of the following is the resting membrane potential of the neuron membrane discussed in class:
The function of cGMP in the rods of the retina is best described by which of the following:
maintaining the dark sodium current
f the following does not use G-proteins in its function:
acetylcholine attaching to its nicotinnic receptor
WHich of the following is the function of guanylate cyclase in photoreceptor cells:
Creation of c-GMP and opening of sodium channels of the photoreceptor cells
which of the following is a refractory structure in the eye:
A serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor such as prozac would perform its function in which of the following ways:
Enhance or improve the effect of serotonin by inhibiting the reuptake protein that takes serotonin into the pre-synaptic cell for processing.
When light strikes the photoreceptor cells, dissociation of retinene from opsin protein results in the dissociation of the alpha G-rotein subunit which, in turn, does which of the following:
Activates phosphodiesterase which converts cGMP into 5' GMP, thus closing sodium channels
The light sensitive component of the eye which receives visual stimuli and converts them into nerve impulses is known as the :
WHich of the following is responsible for degrading cAMP after cAMP performs its function in the post synaptic cell:
movement of an action potential from one neuron to the next across the synapse is called:
After release of acetylcholine from the axon at the neuromuscular junction and its attached to nicotinnic receptors, it must be degraded in order that another transmission can occur which of the following is responsible for that degradation:
Transmission of neurological impulses involves movement of the impulse along the neuron wheas conduction refers to movement of the impulse from one neuron to another acrossthe synapse.
which of the following is the equilibrium potential of potassium
which of the following is a function of dopamine:
responding to reward and punishment, and inhibiting skeletal muscle contractions to prevent unwanted skeletal muscle contractions
the function of cholinesterase is to:
The polarity of the neuron membrane, positive on the outside and negative within the cytoplasm is largely a result of the high concentration of ions outside the cell:
WHich of the following would be found predominately on the pre trigger zone of a neuron:
ligand gated channels, and G-protein gated channels
Sensory or afferent neurons carry information into the spinal cord of the censory system via the:
Activation of ganglion cells in the retina results from which of the following:
closing of sodium channels which results in rod cells no longer releasing into neurotransmitters.