Def: A form of energy that comes from the interaction of different charged particles, like electrons, and protons.
E.g. Turning light switch on causing the light to illuminate, blender, fridge
Static Charge (Static Electricity)
Def: A stationary electric charge, often produced by friction that tends to stay on the surface of an object.
E.g. Rubbing balloon against hair.
Charging By Friction
Def: When objects made from different types of materials rub against each other, producing a net static charge on each other.
E.g. Dragging your feet across the carpet (friction), hair and comb.
Def: A list of many different materials arranged in order of their ability and strength to hold on to electrons.
E.g. Ebonite would be lower on the list because it has a stronger hold on electrons, and glass would be higher on the list because it has a looser hold on electrons.
Def: A type of material that does not allow electrons to easily move from one atom to another.
E.g. Rubber, silk, wood, (anything expect for metals)
Def: A material in which electrons can easily and freely move between atoms.
E.g. Metals (copper, aluminium)
Def: A material in between a insulator and a conductor, it allows electrons to move fairly well between atoms.
Def: A object that supplies a large number of electrons a charged object, or can remove a large number of electrons to neutralise the object.
E.g. An appliance or generator may say do not use without proper ground, a utility pole has a bare wire that runs to the ground to neutralise the charge.
Def: A device that is used to detect a electrical charge.
E.g. There are two types of electroscopes a metal leaf electroscope, and a pith ball electroscope
Charging By Contact
Def: Generating a charge on a neutral object by using a charged object and making them both touch.
E.g. When a neutral pith ball comes in contact with a negative rod then some of the electrons from the rod will transfer to the pith ball. This will make the pith ball negatively charged and the rod will have a reduced charge however it will most likely still be negative.
Laws of Electric Charges
Def: Laws that describe how different charges interact when one or both of them are charged.
The 3 Laws Are:
1. Like Charges Repel
2. Opposite charges attract
3. Charged and neutral objects attract each other
Def: A region or space around a charged object which a force would be exerted on other charged objects.
Induced Charge Seperation
Def: The movement of electrons in a object or substance, caused by the electric field of a nearby charged object, without any contact.
E.g. When a neutral pith ball is in the electric field of a positively charged rod then the electrons (negatives) inside the ball will come closer to the rod because opposite charges attract.
Def: An atom that is charged or a group of atoms that are charged.
Def: A metal sphere that is attached to the highest part of a building and runs all the way to the ground. Usually a copper wire (insulated) connects the lightning rod to a bare metal plate in the ground.
E.g. Lightning usually strikes the highest area thats why the lightning rods are put on the highest area on the building. The CN tower gets struck by lightning about 75 times a year so its important that there's a lightning rod to ground the charge.
Def: A cleaner that removes unwanted particles and water droplets from a flow of gas.
- Invented by Frederick Cottrell in 1907 to reduce pollution from smokestacks
Van De Graaff Generator
Def: A device that collects and accumulates and transfers very large charges.
- Have been used as atom smashers since 1930`s, because they can generate particles at very high speeds. New subatomic particles may be formed in this process.
How it works: The metal sphere rests on a insulated column and charges end up accumulating. The collecting comb is attached inside the sphere. The charged belt induces a redistribution of charges inside the comb, which then causes the charges to accumulate on the sphere. The motor drives and runs the lower roller, and as the belt moves over it, it gets charged by friction. The rubber belt runs over two rollers, charges stick to it and are carried up as it rotates around.
Def: A fairly small device that has the ability to detect and measure exposure to radiation.
E.g. Astronauts wear them when they are above the earth`s atmosphere, they need to wear them to protect them from the radiation that is emitted from the sun.