Electricity Chapter 11
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A closed path which electrons that are powered by energy can flow.
A source of energy that generates an electric current by chemical reactions involving two different metals or metal compounds separated by a solution that is a conductor.
A connection of two or more cells.
- One of the two metal terminals on a cell or battery
- The breakdown of an electrode is one factor that can limit the life of a cell
A solution or paste that conducts charge.
A cell that contains an electrolyte which is a paste.
A cell that contains a liquid electrolyte.
A cell that can only be used once.
A cell that can be recharged.
- A cell that can generate electricity through the reactions of fuel stored outside of the cell
- Hydrogen fuel cells combine hydrogen that is stored in a tank or cartridge with oxygen from the air
- By-products are heat and water
A cell that converts sunlight into electrical light.
A position on a cell that must be connected to other components to form a circuit.
- Controlled device
- Conductor that can complete or break a circuit
Electrons cannot flow through any circuit with a gap or break (switches create these gaps).
- The rate of movement of an electric charge
- In a circuit it is due to the flow of electrons
- The unit of electric charge
- 1 C = 6.25 x 1018 electrons
- The unit of electric current
- 1.0 A means that 1.0 C of charge pass a given point in a circuit every second
- Free electrons in a solid move when an electric field is produced by a cell
- Collisions (with ions or other electrons) interfere with the flow of electrons
- It is a property of a substance that hiders electric currents and converts electrical energy into other forms
- Metals have lower resistances and that is why they are used as wires to make circuit conductors
A device used in an electrical circuit to decrease the current through a component by a specific amount.
A resistor or any other device that transforms electrical energy into heat, sound, light or motion.
Potential Difference (Voltage)
- The voltage of a cell is related to the amount of work that is done on each coulomb of charge that moves between the terminals of the cell
- V = J/C
- The unit for potential difference
- Equal to 1 J/C
- Electrons move from the negative terminal through the circuit to the positive terminal
- A voltmeter is used to measure potential difference
- Electrical charge does not lose energy as it moves along a perfect conductor with no resistance
- A diagram that sues standard symbols (refer to notes) to represent components in an electric circuit
- You must include: the direction the electrons travel, the positive and negative terminals, voltage
A circuit in which there is one path for the electrons to flow through.
A circuit in which there are multiple paths for the electrons to flow through.
- The ratio of potential difference (V) to current (I) is a constant called resistance (R)
- Can be rearranged to find current (I=V/R)
- Can be rearranged to find resistance (R=V/I)
- Larger resistance=smaller current
- Unit for resistance is an Ohm
- The unit for resistance
- Refer to image in previous question
A material in which electric charge can flow with no resistance.
Something that does not follow Ohm's Law
Loads in Series (LS)
Refer to: LS Current, LS Potential Difference, LS Resistance, Decreased Current=Decreased Glow.
Loads in Parallel (LP)
Refer to: LP Current, LP Potential Difference, LP Resistance, Bulbs in Parallel.
- The same at al points because there is only one path for the charge to flow
LS Potential Difference
- The potential difference splits up because the energy has to be shared by all the loads but the sum is equal to what the power supply can provide
- If all loads are identical, potential difference will be shared equally; if unidentical more energy will go to the load with more resistance
- Adding more loads in a series is similar to adding more length to the wire
- More loads=more resistance
- Total resistance is equal to the sum of resistance in each load
Decreased Current=Decreased Glow
- As more bulbs are added in series, each bulb will glow less because resistance will increase causing the current to decrease
- If the bulbs are identical they will glow the same
- If one bulb goes out, they all go out
- The current will split up because there is more than one path for the electric charge to flow
- If all loads are identical the current will split up equally;if unidentical then the current will travel down the path with less resistance
LP Potential Difference
- The potential difference is the same down each path on a parallel circuit because the electrons follow different paths but they only have to pass on energy to one load/path (at our level)
- Adding more loads in a parallel circuit is similar to having two straw to drink out of instead of one; more paths=less resistance
- Total resistance is less than the resistance down each path
Bulbs in Parallel
- As identical bulbs are added in parallel the brightness of the bulbs remains the same because each path receives the same amount of energy
- One goes out, all stay on
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