Electricity Chapter 11

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Electricity Chapter 11
2014-10-23 11:32:38

Electricity Glossary Terms
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  1. Electrical Current
    A closed path which electrons that are powered by energy can flow.
  2. Voltalic Cell
    A source of energy that generates an electric current by chemical reactions involving two different metals or metal compounds separated by a solution that is a conductor.
  3. Battery
    A connection of two or more cells.
  4. Electrode
    • One of the two metal terminals on a cell or battery
    • The breakdown of an electrode is one factor that can limit the life of a cell
  5. Electrolyte
    A solution or paste that conducts charge.
  6. Dry Cell
    A cell that contains an electrolyte which is a paste.
  7. Wet Cell
    A cell that contains a liquid electrolyte.
  8. Primary Cell
    A cell that can only be used once.
  9. Secondary Cell
    A cell that can be recharged.
  10. Fuel Cell
    • A cell that can generate electricity through the reactions of fuel stored outside of the cell
    • Hydrogen fuel cells combine hydrogen that is stored in a tank or cartridge with oxygen from the air
    • By-products are heat and water
  11. Solar Cell
    A cell that converts sunlight into electrical light.
  12. Terminal
    A position on a cell that must be connected to other components to form a circuit.
  13. Switch
    • Controlled device
    • Conductor that can complete or break a circuit
  14. Open Circuit
    Electrons cannot flow through any circuit with a gap or break (switches create these gaps).
  15. Electrical Current
    • The rate of movement of an electric charge
    • In a circuit it is due to the flow of electrons
  16. Coulomb (C)
    • The unit of electric charge
    • 1 C = 6.25 x 1018¬†electrons
  17. Ampere (A)
    • The unit of electric current
    • 1.0 A means that 1.0 C of charge pass a given point in a circuit every second
  18. Electrical Resistance
    • Free electrons in a solid move when an electric field is produced by a cell
    • Collisions (with ions or other electrons) interfere with the flow of electrons
    • It is a property of a substance that hiders electric currents and converts electrical energy into other forms
    • Metals have lower resistances and that is why they are used as wires to make circuit conductors
  19. Resistor
    A device used in an electrical circuit to decrease the current through a component by a specific amount.
  20. Load
    A resistor or any other device that transforms electrical energy into heat, sound, light or motion.
  21. Potential Difference (Voltage)
    • The voltage of a cell is related to the amount of work that is done on each coulomb of charge that moves between the terminals of the cell
    • V = J/C
  22. Volt
    • The unit for potential difference
    • Equal to 1 J/C
    • Electrons move from the negative terminal through the circuit to the positive terminal
    • A voltmeter is used to measure potential difference
    • Electrical charge does not lose energy as it moves along a perfect conductor with no resistance
  23. Circuit Diagram
    • A diagram that sues standard symbols (refer to notes) to represent components in an electric circuit
    • You must include: the direction the electrons travel, the positive and negative terminals, voltage
  24. Series Circuit
    A circuit in which there is one path for the electrons to flow through.
  25. Parallel Circuit
    A circuit in which there are multiple paths for the electrons to flow through.
  26. Ohm's Law
    • The ratio of potential difference (V) to current (I) is a constant called resistance (R)
    • V=IR
    • Can be rearranged to find current (I=V/R)
    • Can be rearranged to find resistance (R=V/I)
    • Larger resistance=smaller current
    • Unit for resistance is an Ohm
  27. Ohm
    • The unit for resistance
    • Refer to image in previous question
  28. Superconductor
    A material in which electric charge can flow with no resistance.
  29. Non-Ohmic
    Something that does not follow Ohm's Law
  30. Loads in Series (LS)
    Refer to: LS Current, LS Potential Difference, LS Resistance, Decreased Current=Decreased Glow.
  31. Loads in Parallel (LP)
    Refer to: LP Current, LP Potential Difference, LP Resistance, Bulbs in Parallel.
  32. LS Current
    • The same at al points because there is only one path for the charge to flow
    • It=I1=I2=I3
  33. LS Potential Difference
    • The potential difference splits up because the energy has to be shared by all the loads but the sum is equal to what the power supply can provide
    • If all loads are identical, potential difference will be shared equally; if unidentical more energy will go to the load with more resistance
    • Vt=V1+V2+V3
  34. LS Resistance
    • Adding more loads in a series is similar to adding more length to the wire
    • More loads=more resistance
    • Total resistance is equal to the sum of resistance in each load
    • Rt=R1+R2+R3
  35. Decreased Current=Decreased Glow
    • As more bulbs are added in series, each bulb will glow less because resistance will increase causing the current to decrease
    • If the bulbs are identical they will glow the same
    • If one bulb goes out, they all go out
  36. LP Current
    • The current will split up because there is more than one path for the electric charge to flow
    • If all loads are identical the current will split up equally;if unidentical then the current will travel down the path with less resistance
    • It+I1+I2+I3
  37. LP Potential Difference
    • The potential difference is the same down each path on a parallel circuit because the electrons follow different paths but they only have to pass on energy to one load/path (at our level)
    • Vt=V1=V2=V3
  38. LP Resistance
    • Adding more loads in a parallel circuit is similar to having two straw to drink out of instead of one; more paths=less resistance
    • Total resistance is less than the resistance down each path
    • Rt<R1;Rt<R2;Rt<R3
  39. Bulbs in Parallel
    • As identical bulbs are added in parallel the brightness of the bulbs remains the same because each path receives the same amount of energy
    • One goes out, all stay on