Muscular System II
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What are the sources of energy for muscle contraction?
- Creatine Phosphate
- Fatty Acids
What is good/bad about ATP for an energy source?
very little stored
What is good/bad about ADP for an energy source?
abundant but not as much energy available as ATP
How do you get ATP to become ADP?
find a phosphate
What is good/bad about Creatine Phosphate for an energy source?
generates ATP quickly but doesn't last long
What is good/bad about Glycogen for an energy source?
has readily available sources but takes a while to process
What is good/bad about fatty acids for an energy source?
abundant source in adipose tissue
What is the best energy source for muscle contraction?
What are the two classes of strength in muscle contractions?
- "all or none" action
What are "all or none" action contractions?
contractions that apply to a single muscle fiber motor unit
What are summation contractions?
the whole muscle contracting at varying strengths
What are the types of summation contractions?
- spatial summation
- temporal summation
What is tetany?
when a muscle stays in contraction
What is tetanus?
when a muscle has reached the peak of maximum contraction and stays there
What is HYPP?
- Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis
- occurs in horses
- an overabundance of blood potassium
What is grass tetany?
- low level of blood magnesium and calcium
- occurs in ruminants
What is PSSM?
- Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy
- abnormal storage of starch
- occurs in horses
same length but tension changes
length changes but tension stays the same
What is rigor?
no ATP for the actin & myosin to branch off
What is rigor mortis?
no ATP because of death
when an animal is relaxed
What is the main difference between skeletal and cardiac muscle contractions?
increase in intercellular calcium for a longer period of time in cardiac muscles
What drives smooth muscle contraction?
How do you determine contractile properties?
- look at:
- myosin ATPase and oxidative capacity
What are the types of muscle fibers?
- Type I (dark)
- Type IIA (intermediate)
- Type IIB (light)
Which are the fast-twitch fibers?
- Type IIA
- Type IIB
- white fibers
What are the slow-twitch fibers?
What type of muscle fibers is almost devoid of mitochondria?
How can muscle fibers be modified?
What type of running relies on Type IIB fibers?
What type of running relies on Type IIA fibers?
What type of running relies on Type I fibers?
What is the purpose of the stay apparatus in horses?
- allows horses to rest while standing
- conserves energy
- more efficient for flight response
What makes up the stay apparatus?
- locks hock and stifle
- check ligaments in front limbs
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