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  1. Heart pumps the blood
    to the lungs for gas exchange and out to the systemic circulation
  2. arteries, capillaries, and veins
    transport o2 and nutrients to the body tissues
  3. blood flow through the heart
    Superior/inferior vena cava, RIGHT atrium, tricuspid valve, R ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary veins, LEFT atrium, mitral (bicuspid) valve, L ventricle, arotic valve, aorta, body
  4. perfusion
    circulation of oxygenated blood to tissues/organs
  5. Ischemia
    • lack of O2 - decreased perfusion - impaired function.
    • can be reversed to normal function
  6. Necrosis
    • death of tissue - prolonged period of inadequate perfusion.
    • will not return to normal function - replaced by scar tissue. - perm organ dysfunction
  7. pressure gradient
    blood flows from the high pressure arterial system thru the capillary system to the low pressure venous system
  8. blood viscosity
    • judged by the hematocrit
    • increased viscosity - sluggish blood flow
  9. Large diameter vessels
    less resistance to flow
  10. small diameter vessels
    more resistance to flow
  11. Stroke Volume
    • amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle with EACH contraction.
    • 70ml
  12. frank-starlings law
    • greater the stretch - stronger contraction - increased cardiac output
    • SV is influenced by dispensability and contractility
  13. Cardiac output
    • the amount of blood that is pumped out of the ventricles per MIN
    • 5-6L - stroke volume X heart rate = CO
  14. Preload
    • amt of blood returning to the heart in the L ventricle before the heart contracts
    • Increase preload - increase distendibility - greater stretch needed.
  15. afterload
    systemic vascular resistance: pressure the left ventricle must pump out against
  16. vasoconstriction ____ SVR
    • increases systemic vascular resistance because it is hard to push blood through a smaller hole
    • higher blood pressure
  17. vasodilatation ____ SVR
    • decreases systemic vascular resistance because it has an easier time pushing blood through a bigger hole
    • lower blood pressure
  18. The greater the amt of pressure the heart
    must work harder and smaller amt of blood are pumped out with each contraction
  19. Ejection fraction
    • measures the effectiveness of the pump. gives me an idea of how much blood the heart is able to supply to the tissues.
    • percentage of blood emptied from the ventricles with each contraction - 60-70%
  20. significant tachycardia
    • normally increase heart rate causes increased CO but when the heart is beating so fast that there is inadequate time for ventricular filling.
    • increased HR = decreased CO
  21. problems with afterload
    • increased pressure= increased SVR
    • decreased pressure = decreased SVR
  22. cardiac muscle cells
    generate receive and transmit electrical pulses
  23. Sinoatrial Node
    1 the pacemaker that originates and sets the heart rate.
  24. Atrioventricular Node
    2 the gatekeeper that receives impulses from the SA node and delays it before sending it
  25. Bundle of His and Purkinje fibers
    transmit the electrical pulse from the AV node down to the ventricles
  26. life span factors of cardio disease
    • atherosclerosis increases with age
    • heredity- positive family history- major risk factor
  27. physiological factors of cardio disease
    • sex
    • weight
    • pregnancy
  28. preexisting cardiovascular factors
    alterations in tissue perfusion from (atherosclerosis)decreased lumen size of vessel decreases and limits the amt of blood delivered to the tissue
  29. alterations in cardiac output
    ineffective pump: angina, MI, dysrhythmia, heart valve disorders, and heart failure.
  30. lifestyle factors
    • modifiable
    • diet high fat and salt
    • decreased exercise
    • smoking
    • substance abuse
  31. emotional stress
    increase HR BP- Increases O2 demands
  32. assessment of CV disorders
    • chest pain
    • palpitations
    • SOB/Dyspnea/Cough
    • fatigue/ weakness/ suncope/ lightheaded/ dizzy
    • sudden severe upper back or abdominal pain
  33. decreased tissue perfusion (assessment)
    • brain: confusion, anxiety, disorientation
    • heart: chest pain and dysrhythmias
    • Kidney: less than 30ml/hr urine output
    • arterial: pale cool decreased/ absent pulses
    • venous: edema, redness, warmth
  34. decreased cardiac output (assessment)
    • hypotension, decreased coronary o2 flow, bradycardia
    • skin signs gool clamy, blue, decreased cap refil
  35. warning signs of CV problems
    • high or low BP, HR and RR
    • changes in LOC
    • complaints of CP/SOB
Card Set:
2014-10-13 21:16:03

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