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Heart pumps the blood
to the lungs for gas exchange and out to the systemic circulation
arteries, capillaries, and veins
transport o2 and nutrients to the body tissues
blood flow through the heart
Superior/inferior vena cava, RIGHT atrium, tricuspid valve, R ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary veins, LEFT atrium, mitral (bicuspid) valve, L ventricle, arotic valve, aorta, body
circulation of oxygenated blood to tissues/organs
- lack of O2 - decreased perfusion - impaired function.
- can be reversed to normal function
- death of tissue - prolonged period of inadequate perfusion.
- will not return to normal function - replaced by scar tissue. - perm organ dysfunction
blood flows from the high pressure arterial system thru the capillary system to the low pressure venous system
- judged by the hematocrit
- increased viscosity - sluggish blood flow
Large diameter vessels
less resistance to flow
small diameter vessels
more resistance to flow
- amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle with EACH contraction.
- greater the stretch - stronger contraction - increased cardiac output
- SV is influenced by dispensability and contractility
- the amount of blood that is pumped out of the ventricles per MIN
- 5-6L - stroke volume X heart rate = CO
- amt of blood returning to the heart in the L ventricle before the heart contracts
- Increase preload - increase distendibility - greater stretch needed.
systemic vascular resistance: pressure the left ventricle must pump out against
vasoconstriction ____ SVR
- increases systemic vascular resistance because it is hard to push blood through a smaller hole
- higher blood pressure
vasodilatation ____ SVR
- decreases systemic vascular resistance because it has an easier time pushing blood through a bigger hole
- lower blood pressure
The greater the amt of pressure the heart
must work harder and smaller amt of blood are pumped out with each contraction
- measures the effectiveness of the pump. gives me an idea of how much blood the heart is able to supply to the tissues.
- percentage of blood emptied from the ventricles with each contraction - 60-70%
- normally increase heart rate causes increased CO but when the heart is beating so fast that there is inadequate time for ventricular filling.
- increased HR = decreased CO
problems with afterload
- increased pressure= increased SVR
- decreased pressure = decreased SVR
cardiac muscle cells
generate receive and transmit electrical pulses
1 the pacemaker that originates and sets the heart rate.
2 the gatekeeper that receives impulses from the SA node and delays it before sending it
Bundle of His and Purkinje fibers
transmit the electrical pulse from the AV node down to the ventricles
life span factors of cardio disease
- atherosclerosis increases with ageheredity- positive family history- major risk factor
physiological factors of cardio disease
preexisting cardiovascular factors
alterations in tissue perfusion from (atherosclerosis)decreased lumen size of vessel decreases and limits the amt of blood delivered to the tissue
alterations in cardiac output
ineffective pump: angina, MI, dysrhythmia, heart valve disorders, and heart failure.
- diet high fat and salt
- decreased exercise
- substance abuse
increase HR BP- Increases O2 demands
assessment of CV disorders
- chest pain
- fatigue/ weakness/ suncope/ lightheaded/ dizzy
- sudden severe upper back or abdominal pain
decreased tissue perfusion (assessment)
- brain: confusion, anxiety, disorientation
- heart: chest pain and dysrhythmias
- Kidney: less than 30ml/hr urine output
- arterial: pale cool decreased/ absent pulses
- venous: edema, redness, warmth
decreased cardiac output (assessment)
- hypotension, decreased coronary o2 flow, bradycardia
- skin signs gool clamy, blue, decreased cap refil
warning signs of CV problems
- high or low BP, HR and RR
- changes in LOC
- complaints of CP/SOB
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