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In correct order, list all the structures of the nephron through which filtrate will travel from the blood to bladder.
Glomer. Capsule > Proximal Tubule > Neph. Loop > Distal Tubule > Collecting Duct > Papillary Duct > Minor Calx Major Calx > Renal Pelvis > Ureter > Bladder > Urethra
Describe the different functions between the "principal cells" and the "intercalated cells"
Principal Cells reabsorb water and secrete potassium; Intercalated Cells play a role in secreting and reabsorbing hydrogen and bicarbonate ions
A complex network of capillaries that surrounds the renal tubule, it collects water and solutes absorbed by the nephron, delivers other solutes absorbed by the nephron for secretion, and drains into cortical radiate veins.
Peritubular Capillary System
Capillary loops formed by branches of peritubular capillaries that dip into the renal medulla, and is closely related with the nephron loop of a juxtamedullary nephron; blood flows through it and returns to the renal cortex.
Extracellular fluid which the peritubular capillary bed; it is isotonic with the blood supply, so if the constituents of it changes, that change will be captured by the peritubular capillaries.
List, in correct order, the 3 physiological functions of the kidney that are used in the formation of urine.
1) Filtration (blood plasma is filtered) 2) Reabsorption (return filtered products back to blood) 3) Secretion (put waste products into the filtrate to be excreted by the kidney)
Describe the filtration function of the kidney that is used in the formation of urine and describe which section of the nephron it takes place in.
Blood pressure forces water and solutes across the membranes of the glomerular capillaries into the capsular space (renal corpuscle)
Describe the reabsorption function of the kidney that is used in the formation of urine and describe which section of the nephron it takes place in.
Transport of filtered water and solutes from the tubular fluid across tubular epithelium into peritubular fluid and back into blood (proximal convoluted renal tubule)
Describe the secretion function of the kidney that is used in the formation of urine and describe which section of the nephron it takes place in.
Transport of waste solutes from the peritubular capillary bed into the peritubular fluid across tubular epithelium into the tubular fluid (distal convoluted renal tubule)
Part of a nephron where reabsorption occurs for urine formation, most substances are reabsorbed back into blood.
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Part of a nephron where secretion occurs for urine formation, reabsorbs a variable amount of water under ADH and a variable amount of Na under aldosterone.
Distal Convoluted Tubule
Part of a nephron that reabsorbs 25% of water and places it into the peritubular capillaries, reabsorbs 20-25% of Na and Cl and creates a high concentration of NaCl in the medulla.
Nephron Loop (Loop of Henle)
Reabsorbs a variable amount of water under control of ADH.
Blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries that serves as the main force that moves substances through the glomerular capillary wall into the filtrate.
Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure (GHP)
Pressure where few, if any, plasma, proteins enter the capsular space.
Capsular Colloid Osmotic Pressure
Pressure due to materials in solution, tends to draw water out of the filtrate and into the plasma (opposes filtration)
Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure (BCOP)
Opposes GHP, results from resistance of filtrate already in the nephron.
Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure (CsHP)
The sum of the hydrostatic pressures and colloid osmotic pressures acting across the glomerular capillaries.
Net Filtration Pressure
Net Filtration Pressure=
force favoring filtration (GHP) - forces opposing filtration [(CsHP)+(BCOP)]
What is the effect of vasodilation of the afferent arteriole on GHP and GFR?
Vasodilation would increase GHP, thus increase GFR
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