American History Exam II

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  1. 4 problems with the constitution in 1783
    • Commerce: brits competing to divide and conquer, internal tariffs
    • Foreign Policy: Brits stays in west forts, spain has control of nola
    • Revolutionary war debt: not paying off fast enough=bad credit
    • Need for unanimity to amend: change to pay taxes
  2. 3 Steps towards change from 1783 constitution problems
    • Potomac conference 1784
    • Annapolis Conference 1786 (Only 5 states show up)
    • Constitutional Convention(Philadelphia) 1787
  3. What was the possible reason everyone showed up for the Constitutional Convention in Philly?
    Shay's Rebellion
  4. 4 main points of the 1787 Constitutional convention
    • called to amend articles
    • need for more central power
    • fear of more central power
    • all states and representatives
  5. Shay's rebellion 4 points
    • concern over taxes
    • shutting of courts
    • will the militia be loyal
    • concern over disorder
  6. 3 things the US constitution is a product of
    • * Philosophy-enlightenment
    • * Experience-too much vs too little government
    • * compromise: representation, 3/5 compromise
    • trade & taxing (only tax imports)
  7. 4 US Governmental innovations
    • Federal system: divided sovereignty
    • President: independent, limited
    • Judicial review: interpret the law
    • Electoral College: independence of president
  8. What two events pushed the colonies to be against britian?
    • * Brits sent Hessian soldier to fight them
    • * Common Sense by Tom Paine, a article talking against the king
  9. The 2 parts of the Declaration of Independence
    • Justification and reason for creating a new government
    • Injuries and usurpations of King George III
  10. group of people in US who were still loyal to the mother country
  11. The commercial and formal treaty of alliance
    • Between France (king Louis XVI) and US (Washington)
    • agreed to make common cause and aid each other mutually if war was to break out btwn brit and france
  12. What did US leaders learn at the Paris Peace Conference
    • divide and conquer
    • to never fully be on one side
    • play powers off each other
  13. What were the 5 provisions with the preliminary treaty that was signed with England?
    • Sine qua non: independence
    • generous boundaries (Ohio)
    • Britain to leave forts in US territory
    • Tories to be undisturbed
    • Rights in northern fisheries
    • no collection of debts owed British subjects
  14. Problems with the first constitution
    • only 1 representative for each state regardless of size
    • lacked the authority to impose taxes and enforcing powers
  15. The Land Ordinances 1784
    • Divided into townships 6x6 miles
    • subdivided into 640 acres sold @ $1
    • central government and school
  16. Northwest Ordinance 1787
    • determination of statehood
    • 5,000 adult men
    • 60,000 persons settled
    • Then it would get a governor and 3 judges and could draft a constitution
    • no slavery
  17. Reasons why Washington is a hero
    • American virtues
    • man of deeds rather then words
    • endured great hardships stoically, yet accustomed to luxury
    • bold patriot, quick to take arms to defend
    • independence, integrity, dislike of power
    • patient, thoughtful, can't tell a lie
  18. 7 trade Problems with the 1st constitution
    • Spanairds closed miss river
    • british offered lots of cheap products
    • trade with Britian dropped
    • No $ for payback-no power to place tariffs, when states did, Brits went to state that didn't
    • states wouldn't oblige to tariffs
    • market dries up
    • more competition
  19. 4 overall problems with 1st constitution
    • Commerce-Britain playing states against each for trades
    • Foreign Policy-Britain not leaving forts, stir up natives, Spain controlling miss river
    • Revolutionary war debt-colonies not paying or paying too slowly
    • Need for unanimity to amend-no power to enforce taxes
  20. 3 conferences/conventions to change constitution
    • 1784 Potomac conference
    • 1786 Annapolis Conference
    • 1787 Constitutional Convention (philly)
  21. Shay's Rebellion
    • farmers angry about paying 1/3 of wages to taxes
    • prisons crowded with debtors
    • prevented courts from holding sessions
    • fought state militia
    • politicians scared of anarchy
    • agreed there needs to be more central power
  22. 4 reasons for the 1787 constitutional convention
    • to amend articles
    • need for more central power
    • fear of more central power
    • all states send representatives because of shay's rebellion
  23. 3 main points of US constitution
    • Actual representation-live in area
    • Finite-protects certain rights no matter what
    • Divisible sovereignty-power not all in one place
  24. 3 products the US constitution is drawn up on
    • philosophy
    • -men are suppose to govern locally
    • -men are sinners
    • -rule with limits
    • Experience
    • -trying to find balance btwn colonial problems(too much) and articles (too little)
    • Compromise
  25. What is the 3 compromises of the constitution
    • *bi-cameral legislature representation
    • 2 houses: 1. representatives-based on population
    • 2. Senates: 2 representative for each state
    • * 3/5 "other people" for population count
    • * only imports have tariffs
  26. 4 ways US is innovative
    • 1. federal system is divided sovereignty
    • 2. President is independent of houses yet limited to congresses approval and is only in office for 4 years
    • 3. Judicial review gets to make sure laws match up to constitution
    • 4. Electoral College to elect president
  27. 3 ratifications of constitution
    • 1. State conventions for voting for president
    • 2. Anti-Federalists concerned over national power so no religion and can deny trial by jury
    • 3. Bill of Rights-protects from treason accusations-must have proof
  28. Federalist Papers
    • Hamilton, Madison, Jay
    • spelt out constitution and why it was good
    • Federalist 10-Madison and theory of faction
    • large area w/lots of different types of people=no one can dominate
    • no majority that oppresses
  29. What is Washington most important for?
    • Setting presidential precedents
    • all following presidents follow his impact on decisions
  30. The 6 F's that define Washingtons career (1789-1797)
    • Financial
    • Frontier
    • Forts
    • Foreign trade
    • France
    • Farewell
  31. Hamilton's Financial Plan
    • Goal is for states to be on firm financial foothold
    • Tariffs on whiskey
    • Assumption of Debts
    • Bank of US
  32. What is Hamilton's assumption of debts
    • Assume states debts as Federal Debt
    • Pays Bonds at full face value to raise financial faith in government
    • pays current holders because impossible to track original holders
  33. What is Hamilton's Bank of the US
    • Believes US needs some debt
    • "necessary and proper (elastic) clause"
    • -in order to pay old bonds creates new bonds
    • -will ensure people will always have stake in government
    • --implied power
  34. 3 problems occurring on the Frontier during Washingtons time as president/after constitution
    • Natives still stirring up trouble, Battle of Fallen Timbers
    • Whiskey Rebellion
    • Spain controlling NOLA
  35. Whiskey Rebellion, Washingtons Rxn (8)
    • internal tax on whiskey
    • farmers can't ship bc of spain/NOLA
    • think tax is unfair bc government not doing anything about spain or natives
    • plus home invasions
    • Stamp Act: representatives to collect
    • farmers attack Pittsburg
    • Washington sends 13,000 troops
    • arrests leaders-pardons
  36. Pickney's Treaty 6
    • Spain wants taxes for going through Gulf
    • sign a treaty for the right of deposit
    • brings goods to dock, then to ship=no tax
    • Spain agrees bc fears possible alliance with Brits
    • North Happy because they can now trade
    • also get a bunch of land to texas
  37. John Jay's Treaty
    Wash: 1/2 loaf better then nothing
    • Brits Navy ships stopping US ships, taking all people& Still haven't left forts
    • treaty:
    • * brit leaves forts
    • * limited US trade to West Indies
    • * US pay back debts
    • Washi: stay neutral, resolve some issues
  38. European Backdrop during Washington
    • *French Revolution-killing and taking over kings
    • * War with Europe & France 6th time
    • * America: flattered they want to be like us
    • horrified by bloodbath
    • 2 sides emerge: Anglophiles v. Francophiles
  39. America's relations with France during 6th Europe/French war
    • * Treaty of Alliance-but signed with different king-who was murdered
    • +don't want to get on Englands bad side
    • *Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)-
    • Genet is sent to find privateers(treasoners)
    • nickname: "persona non grata"
    • falls in love, French gets new government, Genet begs to stay, Wash lets him
  40. 2 Big recommendations from Washingtons Farewell Address
    • * Avoid Party Spirit
    • -ignored immediately (Federalist vs. Democratic/republican)
    • * "No permanent alliances"
    • -countries have interests, not friends
    • NATO 1949
  41. 4 key points of John Adams as President 1797-1801
    • * XYZ affairs: treaty w/france-France said to pay them to talk-millions for defense, but not one penny for tribute(bribe)
    • * Alien and Sedition Acts: increase difficulties to become a citizen-can't speak out against governement
    • * Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions: can nullify federal laws
    • * Abrogation of Treaty of Alliance: Napoleon agrees bc he thinks we're weak anyhow
  42. Election of 1800 campaigning behaviors
    • Jefferson(Antifeds) vs. Adams (dems/reps)
    • negative campaigning-Jefferson referred to as Anti-christ
  43. Outcome of 1800 Elections
    • Electro college: electors get 2 votes
    • Dems/reps all vote for adams
    • Feds hate Jefferson, vote for Burr
    • Burr was vice, decides to run for president
    • 1st round:
    • Jeff 8, Burr 4
    • repeated 35 times, on the 36 Hamilton convinces elector not to vote bc of hate for Burr
    • Jefferson wins
    • 12th Amendment: Separate Electoral College ballots(vice vs pres)
  44. Jefferson's Philosophy and style
    • informal
    • small government-fear of power big or small
    • limit spending
    • power w/states=less abuse
    • "yeoman farmer" everyone should get a farm
    • no alliances
    • very intelligent
  45. Yeoman farmer
    • to engage citizens to care about government
    • can be independent on own politics and not concerned with big government
    • wants to give people land
  46. Marbury v. Madison
    • Judiciary Act of 1789-federalist angry
    • Adams signs midnight judges, stocks with all federalists, assigns Chief Justice John Marshall-Jeffersons hated cousin
    • Jefferson finds stack, doesn't send
    • Marbury sues-Write of Mandamus
    • Marshall has to decide
    • :congress passed a law they can't do=unconstitutional
    • Power of Law vs. Constitution
  47. Jefferson's rxn to Marbury v. madison
    • Impeachment of Judge Pickering-easy, unfit, alcoholic, unstable
    • Impeachment of Justice Samuel Chase-not enough evidence, acquitted.
    • Impeachment defined in constitution: high crimes and misdemeanor(bad behavior) up to interrupitation
  48. Why does Jefferson want Louisiana?
    • New Orleans-right of deposits, if France controls then we have to team up with Britain
    • Land for Yeoman's
  49. Why does Napoleon agree to selling Lousiana so cheap?
    • Has a nightmare of losing Hati to slaves, wants it because it has the most valuable thing, sugar and richest with Dominican
    • Counters $5 mill offer for NOLA with $15 mill for everything
  50. whats the issues with Jefferson buying Louisiana?
    • The whole point of government abusing the elastic clause
    • Federalist feel hes abusing power
    • New England Federalist losing power because now there will be more states
  51. Louis & Clark
    • Jefferson sets them out to explore territory
    • establish claims
    • scientific Jefferson nature
  52. Burr conspiracy
    • Vice president, not 100% loyal, is scheming against
    • challenges Hamilton to duel in New Jersey, Hamilton dies
    • Replaced in 1804 by Clinton
    • Engaged in Conspiracy w/brit & spain to take west land
    • was caught and tried for treason by Marshall
    • gets off bc Jefferson and Marshall aren't neutral
  53. Britain & French foreign trade policy
    Berlin Merlin Decrees (Napoleon)
    Orders in Council (Britain)
    • International law says only no war materials may be supplied to either side
    • US gets unlimited sea trade=$$$
    • Britain & France claim anything traded with either side is war materials
    • stop US ships, take goods and sailors
    • both countries threaten we can only trade with them
  54. Jefferson's rxn to warfare
    • Embargo Act (1807)
    • Close all ports to pressure Europe & France to allow us to trade freely and protect sailors
    • BUT it hurt our economy
  55. , Results from Jefferson's Embargo Act
    Stimulates manufacturing of our own goods, investments frees up capita

    • Brit & France still no budge:
    • Non-intercourse act-no trade to B & F, other countries okay, limits but still happens
  56. reasons why we went to war with Britain, again, in 1812
    • Indians-we believe the groups are conspiring
    • We want the western lands
    • Don't wanna pay our debts
    • want to control Nola
    • complete access to trade with whomever
  57. Funny part about war 1812
    brits were sending a proclamation stating everything we wanted meanwhile we were sending a declaration of war against them. Lots of battles, ended up with what we wanted, just lost a lot of money and lives doing so
  58. 3 events of the British-American Rapprochement
    • Rush-Baggot agreement
    • convention of 1818
    • transcontinental Treaty(Adams Onis) 1819
  59. Explain the Rush bagot agreement
    agree remove naval ships from great lakes, been that way ever since
  60. Explain Convention of 1818-1819
    • drew lines to settle boundary issues, Minnesota and beyond
    • Oregon was shared land bc so few people
    • -Joint soviegnity
  61. explain transcontinental treaty (adams-Onis) 1819
    • bc spain thinks us and brit is in alliance they give us florida for $5 million
    • But we pay nothing bc claims from us citizens against florida natives
    • =we pay nothing
    • they also give Louisana and relinquishes any claim to oregon
  62. Foreign issues after war of 1812
    • latin America wants to be like us
    • -should we help or not
    • Greeks fighting turks
    • help?
    • Russia is threatening to take oregon
  63. What's the solution for wars happening overseas? (Greece, Latin America, Russia)
    • Mr. Monroe's Famous Doctrine (1823)
    • Presidents state of union address states:
    • 1. No further colonization of west by outsiders
    • 2. We do not interfere with wars in separate Hemispheres
    • Brit's come up with similar policy
  64. Era of Good Feelings
    • Americans felt we won the war
    • Jeffersoians adapted some of Hamiltoians (feds)ways
    • End of feds-unity
    • Monroe is only candidate for president
  65. North vs. South vs. West
    leaders, and 5 issues
    • South: Calhoun
    • North: Webster
    • West: Clay & Jackson
    • 2nd Back of US
    • Fed land sale
    • Internal Improvements
    • Slavery
    • Tariffs
  66. How do N vs W vs S feel about tariffs?
    • N: wants, protects manufacturing
    • W: wants for roads
    • S: doesn't want, taxes from Europe will increase cost of living
  67. How does N vs W vs S feel about internal improvements?
    • N: doesn't care
    • W: wants for transportation
    • S: doesn't want because they don't want to pay tariffs
  68. How does N vs S vs W feel about 2nd Bank of US?
    North wants idk why
  69. how does N vs S vs W feel about Sale of federal lands being cheap or expensive?
    • West wants cheap in order to get more
    • South wants expensive so no tariff
    • North doesn't like expansion = lose workers
  70. how does N vs S vs W feel about Slavery
    • duh
    • slavery limited to south in hopes of land exhausting and no continued need/allowance of slavery
  71. Who was the union speaker?
    Webster of the north
  72. Who was the great compromiser?
    Clay of the west
  73. Who was the national hero that killed a lot of natives and brits in the west?
  74. Missouri Compromise 1820
    • When states are ready for statehood there will be an uneven number of N vs S states in the senate=unfair
    • settled by splitting Massachutest from Maine
  75. Slavery Compromise
    • anything in the south (Dixie line?) is slave states, above not
    • didn't have anything past louisanna at the time
  76. contenders for 1824 election
    • J. Q. Adams-son of John Adams
    • A. Jackson-hero
    • H. Clay-compromiser
    • J. Calhoun-rep for rich plantation owners
  77. Craziness of 1824 elections and winners
    and end result
    • Clay drops, Calhoun goes for VP
    • Electoral College=no winner->goes to HOR
    • Jackson gets popular vote, but bc top 3 and Clay support Adams wins
    • Adams chooses Clay as sec of state(pattern of S o S = next pres)
    • Jackson angry/and a dueler=gets rest of politicians against his every move
    • This is what creates differing parties
  78. What does adams jr do as pres?
    • Internal improvements to include science
    • Tariff of 1828(Abominations)
    • protects northern industry
    • MEANWHILE Calhoun is plotting to overthrow government with "exhibition & protest" paper
Card Set
American History Exam II
American history 1775-1809
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