CJUS 320

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CJUS 320
2014-10-14 02:25:56

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  1. Criminology
    The scientific study of crime and the reasons why people engage (or don't engage) in criminal behavior, as well as the study of why certain trends occur or groups of people seem to engage in criminal behavior more than others.
  2. Cross-sectional studies
    A form of research design model in which a collection of data is taken at one point in time (often in survey format)
  3. Consensual perspective
    Theories that assume virtually everyone is in agreement on the laws and therefore assumes no conflict in attitudes regarding the laws and rules of society.
  4. Conflict perspective
    Theories of criminal behavior that assumes that most people disagree on what the law should be and the law is used as a tool by those in power to keep down other groups.
  5. Classical school
    The classical school of criminological theory is a perspective that is considered the first rational model of crime, one that was based on logic rather than supernatural or demonic factors; it assumes  that crime occurs after a rational individual mentally weigh the potential good and bad consequences of crime and then makes a decision about weather to engage in a given behavior, this model is directly tied to the formation of deterrence theory and assumes that people have free will to control their behavior.
  6. Experimental effect
    the extent to which individuals previous experiences have effects on their perceptions of how certain or severe criminal punishment will be when they are deciding whether or not to offend again.
  7. Deterrence theory
    the theory of crime associated with the classical school, which proposes that individuals will make rational decisions regarding their behavior. This theory focuses on three concepts: the individual's perception of (1) certainty of punishment (2) severity of punishment (3) swiftness of punishment.
  8. scenario /vignette research
    studies that involve providing participants with specific hypothetical scenarios and then asking them what they would do in each situation; typically, they are also asked about their perception of punishment and other factors related to each particular situation.
  9. Age of Enlightment
    A period of the late 17th century to 18th century in which philosophers and scholars began to emphasize the rights of individuals in society. this movement focused on the rights of individuals to have a voice in their government and to exercise free choice; it also included the idea of the social contract and other important assumptions that influenced our current government and criminal justice system.
  10. Paradigm
    A unique perspective of a phenomenon; has an essential set of assumptions that significantly oppose those of other existing paradigms or explanations of the same phenomenon.
  11. Theory
    a set of concepts linked together by a serious of propositions in an organized way to explain a phenomenon.
  12. Rational choice theory
    a modern, classical school based framework for explaining crime that includes the traditional formal deterrence aspects, such as police, courts, and adds other informal factors that studies show consistently and strongly influence behavior, specifically informal deterrence factors (such as friends, family, community, etc.) and also the benefits of offending, whether they be monetary, peer status, or physiological (the rush of engaging devience)
  13. Routine activities theory
    An explanation of crime that assumes that most crimes are committed during the normal daily activities  of peoples lives; it assumes that crime and victimization are highest in places where three factors come together in time place: motivated offenders, suitable or attractive targets, and absence of guardian; this perspective assumes a rational offender who picks targets due to opportunity.
  14. The neoclassical school
    " of criminology theory is virtually to the classical school (both assume free will, rationality, social contracts, deterrence, etc.), except that it assumes that aggravating and mitigating circumstances should be taken into account for purposes of sentencing and punishing an offender.
  15. utilitarianism
    a philosophical concept that is often applied to social policies of the classical school of criminology, which relates to the idea of the greatest good for the greatest number.
  16. legalistic approach
    a way of defining behavior as crime; includes only acts that are specifically against the legal codes of given jurisdiction, The problem with such a definition is that what is a crime in one jurisdiction is not necessarily a crime in other jurisdiction.
  17. Characteristics of a good theory
    • parsimony
    • theory of low self control
    • scope
    • logical consistency
    • testability
    • empirical validity
    • integrated models
    • differential reinforcement theory
    • policy implications
  18. Criteria for determining casuality
    three criteria are required for determining causality, which is essential in determining whether or not an independent (predictive) variable (x)  actually affects a dependent (consequent) variable (y).
  19. routine choice theory
    cohen and felson says do not make a routine of 3 strikes and your out or ill shame you with classical framework give a choice to engage in crime in minesota where hot spot crimes often happen in bars where they served alcohol with motivators, offenders and lack of guardianship.
  20. Rational choice theory
    cornish and clark says be rational and have a informal factors that will stop you from being seduced by crime or you will have shame and loss self esteem if people find out what you did, and girls hardly do thing because of that, so katz agree.