Biology 40s - Diversity of Life

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  1. characteristics of eukaryotic cells (5)
    • more complex than prokaryotic
    • can be unicellular or multicellular
    • has a nucleus and organelles
    • composed of the kingdoms protista, fungi, plantae, and animalia
    • microorganisms =euglena, amoeba, paramecium, algae
  2. characteristics of prokaryotic (5)
    • most ancient cells on earth
    • unicellular
    • has a plasma membrane and cell wall to survive extreme conditions
    • no nucleus or organelles
    • consists of bacteria (kingdom monera)
  3. characteristics of kingdom monera (4)
    • unicellular
    • prokaryotic
    • heterotrophic and autotrophic
    • cell wall = peptidoglycan
  4. characteristics of kingdom protista (4)
    • unicellular
    • eukaryotic 
    • autotrophic or hetertrophic 
    • no cell wall
  5. characteristics of kingdom fungi (4)
    • multicellular
    • eukaryotic 
    • hetertrophic (absorbs nutrients from dead organic material or suitable substrate)
    • cell wall = chitin
  6. characteristics of kingdom plantae (4)
    • multiceullular
    • eukaruotic
    • autotrophic (uses photsynthesis)
    • cell wall =  cellulose
  7. what are properties of viruses (2)
    • viruses have a protein coat (capsid) which makes it resistant to destruction
    • the capsid protects its nucleic acid
  8. How do viruses differ from all types of cells (3)
    • they are not living
    • can't reproduce on their own
    • smaller than any living thing
  9. why are viruses called obligate intracellular parasites
    • obligate intracellular parasites = it can't survive without invading a host cell
    • it does not benefit the host cell in any way
  10. steps of the lytic cycle (3)
    • virus injects its genetic material into the host cell
    • tricks the cell into producing more viruses
    • once the viruses are assembled, the host cell bursts (lysis) and releases all the viruses
  11. steps of lysogenic cycle (4)
    • virus injects its genetic material into the host cell
    • instead of producing new viruses, it mixes its genetic material with the host's DNA (dormant phase)
    • when the host cell reproduces, the viral genetic material mixes with the DNA of all new cells
    • a trigger eventually causes the viral DNA/RNA to separate and the production of viruses start
  12. give examples of viruses
    • rabies, foot and mouth disease
    • hepatitis, polio
    • smallpox, ebola
  13. why is there a need for a taxonomic classification system (3)
    • to better understand our world, knowing certain species are related helps us study how they work
    • important when studying evolution, to understand the links and commonalities between animals
    • allows us to comprehend the great diversity of life on our planet
  14. how do we represent genus and species names (3)
    • genus and species names are always written together
    • genus is capitalized and species is lowercase
    • they must be underlined or italicized, not both
  15. which kingdoms are unicellular
    • kingdom monera
    • kingdom protista
  16. which kingdoms are multicellular
    • kingdom fungi
    • kingdom plantae
    • kingdom animalia
  17. can antibiotics take care of a cold or flu
    no they can't, the cold and flu are viral infections
  18. what treatments are available for viruses
    treated with immunizations/vaccines so long as they contain non-varying proteins and do not mutate
  19. define photosynthesis
    the process by which plants and some microorganisms create their own food by using sunlight energy and the CO2 in the air and converting it into energy
  20. define chemosynthesis
    the production of food without the presence of sunlight
  21. describe binary fission (4)
    • the same as mitosis
    • the cell makes an identical copy of itself by dividing into two daughter cells
    • genetically identical cells
    • asexual reproduction
  22. describe conjugation (3)
    • a plasmid in one specimen contains DNa, joins with a second one, forms a conjugation bridge (pilus) which transfers DNA into the second specimen
    • allows for genetic variability
    • sexual reproduction
  23. how are bacteria ugly (3)
    • anthrax - a famous white powerder, bacteria used in bio-warfare
    • the black plague - killed half of Europe, rats with fleas carried the bacteria Yersinia Pestis
    • bacterial STI's
  24. How is malaria transmitted (5)
    • transmitted by the bite of a mosquito
    • mosquito injects plasmodium sporozoites int the blood stream
    • the sporosoites proceed to the liver where they are metabolized and changed into morozoites which then infect your RBC's
    • no vaccine, only preventative measures
    • sickle cell anemia is a type of protection because morozoites can't infect deformed RBC's
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Biology 40s - Diversity of Life
2014-10-14 03:28:03
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