Anatomy 231 unit II (Lecture Part)

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Anatomy 231 unit II (Lecture Part)
2014-10-28 02:23:43

Anatomy 231 2nd unit
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  1. Serous membranes are always
    smooth and moist
  2. Serous membrane that lines abdomino-pelvic wall is the
    Parietal serous membrane
  3. Serous membrane that lines any internal organ in the abdomino-pelvic cavity is a
    Visceral serous membrane
  4. Parietal means
  5. Kidneys are retro-peritoneal, by this is understood that
    Kidneys are located behind the peritoneal serous membrane
  6. Mesentery that holds the ovaries in place is the:
  7. What happens when bacteria goes into the abdomino-pelvic cavity (gunshot, stab, etc.)
  8. cavities between serous membranes will always be:
  9. Mesentery is:
    a double layer of peritoneum that tethers the movable digestive organs to the body wall
  10. what structures (organs) are found in the thoracic cavity: hint*** there are 2 organs
    Lungs & heart
  11. What's the pericardial sac
    a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels
  12. The heart is surrounded by two membranes:
    Visceral pericardium & Parietal pericardium
  13. The lungs are surrounded by two membranes:
    Visceral pleura & parietal pleura
  14. Epithelium that lines any tube that has 2 exits to the outside of the body CANNOT be
    Endothelium or Mesothelium
  15. Muscularis externa:
    is what moves everything in only one direction.
  16. What is the function of the skeletal system
    Support and protect
  17. What are the 2 structures in the human body that are completely surrounded by bone:
    Brain & Spinal cord
  18. Locomotion is:
    when a living organism moves from one place to another.
  19. Localized motion is:
    When parts of an organism move without going anywhere.
  20. The skeletal system is responsible for:
  21. Hematopoiesis is:
    the production of blood cells and platelets, which occurs in the bone marrow.
  22. What's the most common substance in the blood
  23. Calcium goes into the bloodstream when released from bones as:
    Ca++ (Calcium ions)
  24. When the calcium levels on the bloodstream are low, it is known as
  25. Hypercalcemia is:
    a condition in which the calcium level in your blood is above normal. It weaken your bones, create kidney stones, and interfere with the way your heart and brain works. Results from overactive parathyroid glands.
  26. When clinical term ends in emia, it's a condition related to
  27. Calcium is stored in bones as
    Calcium salts
  28. Two type of cells that must have certain levels of calcium:
    Muscle & nerve cells
  29. What shapes the bones:
    The ground substance
  30. Give an example of long bone:
    Humerus, Femur, etc.
  31. Give an example of an irregular bone
  32. An example of a sesamoid bone is:
    The Patella
  33. A Wormian bone is found in
    The sutures in the skull as an extra little bone.
  34. Give an example of a flat bone
    cranial, scapula.
  35. What's a Diarthrosis
    a freely movable joint—called also synovial joint.
  36. Osteoarthritis is
    When the articular cartilage(cartilage of the joint) wears and bone rubs with bone, creating inflamation.
  37. Peristoeum is
    The outter dense layer of vascular connective tissue that surrounds the bones
  38. Interosseus ligament is
    Dense fibrous connective tissue that connects 2 bones and keeps them in place
  39. Red Marrow is
    the hematopoiotic area in the skeletal system
  40. Synovial membrane is:
    the tissue that lines the joint capsule and derives from mesoderm.
  41. Rheumathoid artitis occurs when
    Synovial membrane degenerates
  42. What type of joint is a Synarthrosis joint
    immovable like the mature skull
  43. What typ of joint is a amphiarthrosis
    Slightly movable joint
  44. What type of joint is a diarthrosis joint
    Freely movable joint
  45. What's a Fibrous joint
    Fibrous joints are connections between bones that are held together by connective tissue that includes many collagen fibres and permit little or no movement
  46. What are cartilagenous joint
    There is a piece of cartilage between the bones which hold the bones together and makes a joint: Bone-cartilage-bone. Symphisis pubis and intervertebral discs are cartilagenous joints.
  47. There are 2 types of sutures:
    • - Mature= immovable
    • - Immature= slightly movable, due to fibrous connective tissue.
  48. Syndesmosis is:
    The point just above the ankle where these two bones meet is called the syndesmosis.
  49. Osteoblasts are __________in origin
  50. The ground substance of bone is
  51. on bone formation, when osteoblasts come together, they Synthesize:
    Collagen and they also separate.
  52. What must the bone have in order to maintain osteocytes alive:
  53. There have to be pathways in the bone in order to bring__________  __________ and _________ to the osteocytes.
    molecular oxygen and proteins.
  54. Cnaliculus is
  55. canaliculae is
  56. Lamella is
    The regular layer of the bone tissue.
  57. Trabecula is
    The irregular layer of the bone tissue.
  58. The major structure unit of the compact bone is:
    Haversian system or osteon
  59. What are the 3 types of Lamellae:
    • 1.- Inner circumferential.
    • 2.- Interstitial.
    • 3.- Outer circumferential.
  60. What are the 2 types of canals:
    • 1.- Haversian canal (Central canal, longitudinal)
    • 2.- Volkmann's canal (Perforating canal, transverse)
  61. In order to put bone tissue on a slide for microscope examination, it must be:
  62. If the mineral salts in bone tissue want to be examined on a slide:
    The bone will be ground with sandpaper until is thin enough so light can go through. This method kills the cells on vessels and everything else. Only mineral salts remain
  63. When extensions of osteocytes meet each other, they form
    Gap junvtions (to transfer information).
  64. Direct (intramembraneous) method of ossification:
    Mesodermal cells start acting as osteoblasts, creating bone immediately.
  65. Indirect (Endochondrial)method of ossification:
    Early in life, osteocytes create hyaline cartilage. Later on life osteocyte dies and cartilage desintegrates, then osteoblast moves in and creates bone.
  66. What type of bone developes by both types of ossification.
    long bones
  67. Identify
    • A= Chondrocyte.
    • B= Lacuna.
    • C= Matrix
  68. Describe apositional growth:
    Growth by addition of new layers (outer)
  69. Interstitial growth is:
    When enlarges from within
  70. Nutrients CANNOT  move through ________ ________ __________
    Calcified ground substance.
  71. Cartilage matrix is
  72. Osteoclasts are
    A special type of macrophage.
  73. Macrophages derived from
    A circulating white blood cell
  74. osteoclasts breakdown bone by 2 ways.
    • - "Disolve" with chemicals.
    • - Phagocytic activity.
  75. Once periosteum surrounds a bone, what happens to the bone
    stops growing to the sides.
  76. What plays a normal role in bone development
  77. Anterior lobe of the Pituitary gland is also known as
  78. What hormones do the anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis) secretes
    • - Growth Hormone= Encourages protein synthesis. 
    • - Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)= Controls thyroid secretions.
  79. what happens when Hyposecretions (problem in mature body) and Hypersecretions of Growth Hormone occur.
    • - Hyposecretions of GH in a immature body= dwarf.
    • - Hypersecretion of GH on immature= every part of the body will be bigger than expected (pituitary giantism)
    • - Hypersecretion of GH on mature= activates periosteum, pericardium and stratum germinitivum =bones thicken, cartilagenous areas grow, ears and nose enlarges. Fingers and toes enlarge (Acromegaly)
  80. What hormones do the Thyroid gland secretes and their functions: ****hint: 2 hormones
    • - Thyroxine= keeps the right efficiency of aerobic respiration.
    • - Calcitonin= Promote proper depositions of salts in bone tissue. Discourages osteoclastic activity.
  81. What happens if thyroxine is lacking on a mature and immature body:
    • - Immature= person will be short (thyroid dwarf) and mentally retarded (cretin).
    • - Mature= Weight excess, mentally dull.
  82. What hormones do the Parathyroid secretes and their function:
    - Parathytoid hormone= Stimulate osteoclasts and pulls calcium out of the ground substance of bones.
  83. What is achondroplasia
    without cartilage growth.
  84. Muscle tissue is _________in origin
  85. all muscle cells have a prominent
    long axis
  86. muscle cells are always:
    Elongated (thread-like fibers)
  87. Muscular cell membrane is called:
    Sarcolema (Sarco also means muscle)
  88. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is also known as
    Sarcoplasmic reticulum 
  89. enlist from smallest to bigest muscle organization:
    Myofilament (smallest), Myofibril (Medium) and myofiber.
  90. What's a myofibril:
    Cylindrical structures that extend along the complete length of each muscle cell.
  91. What's a myofilament:
    • Threadlike structures composing the myofibrils.
    • There are 2 types:
    • - Thick filaments composed of myosin(The commonest protein in muscle cells, responsible for the elastic and contractile properties of muscle)
    • - Thin filaments,composed of actin (a muscle protein localized in the I band of the myofibrils)
  92. Nucleus of muscles is:
  93. muscle cells are
  94. Skeletal muscle is the only tissue that can be:
  95. Syncitium is:
    When cells come together in muscle development (to create a multinucleated tissue=skeletal muscle)
  96. Striated muscle can be contracted
  97. What are autorhythmic cells
    Type of muscular cell that can stimulate itself. (Cardiac muscle cells)
  98. Muscle cells are highly 
  99. What do nerve impulses control in cardiac cells
    Rate of contraction.
  100. Muscle cells always contract on
    Their long axis.
  101. Smooth muscle is found in
    Smooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs like intestines and stomach, bladder wall, woman's uterus, the pupillary sphincter muscle in your eye.
  102. Albino means
    That can not process melanin.
  103. Peristalsis is:
    the involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wavelike movements that push the contents of the canal forward.
  104. What does gap junction make possible
    excitation of near cells without being branched by neuron
  105. Dark strip in cardiac muscle is called
    Intercalated discs  which denotes where the cells come together
  106. Skeletal muscle cells a ________ and ________ axis.
    • Long
    • Short
  107. Skeletal muscle cells must have:
    Useful energy.
  108. There are two visual categories of skeletal muscle cells:
    • 1.- red: Has myoglobin on its cytoplasm and can do aerobic respiration efficiently.
    • 2.- white: Has glycogen on its cytoplasm and will get energy by anaerobic respiration.
  109. what type of tissue is the epimysium
    Dense irregular fibrous connective tissue
  110. What type of tissue is the Perimysium
    Fibrous connective tissue
  111. What type of tissue is the endomysium
    Loose fibrous connective tissue
  112. Loose fibrous connective tissue is always
  113. What's the homeostatic temperature of the human body
    37 degrees celcius
  114. Every skeletal muscle must be associated with:
    A branch of a motor neuron
  115. What conforms the CNS (Central nervous System)
    Brain and spinal chord.
  116. efferent impulses will always go __________fro the CNS
  117. Visible enlargement of muscle cells is called
  118. What happens when a person has pseudohypertrophyc muscular dystrophy
    Muscle cells shrink and dense connective tissue and adipose tissue fill in
  119. afferent neuron will
    send information (impulses) towards CNS
  120. efferent neuron will
    send information (impulses) away from the CNS
  121. Cardio-Vascular system is
    A tubular and closed system
  122. there are 2 circuits in the human body
    Pulmonary and systemic
  123. Vessel that takes blood away from the heart is called
    An artery
  124. Vessel that brings blood closer to the heart is called a
  125. What kind of tissue lies under the endocardium
    Loose fibrous connective tissue
  126. Epicardium consists of
    a thin layerof covering mesothelium and a thin underlying layer of loose connective tissue
  127. Heart lies in
    The pericardial sac and its lining is the parietal pericardium
  128. What tipe of tissue is the pericardium
    Dense fibrous connective tissue
  129. where are the venous sinuses located
    in the heart
  130. How many pulmonary veins there are
  131. There is only one way out of the heart and that is through the
  132. Once the aorta passes through the diaphragm it becomes the
    Abdominal aorta
  133. There are how many branches in the aortic arch in humans
    3 branches
  134. Pulmonary and aortic valves are examples of what kind of valve
    Arterial valves
  135. If a valve is leaky, is known as
    Valvular insufficiency
  136. if a valve is stiff (not opening completely) is known as
    Stenotic valve
  137. Valves are conformed of
    Endothelium and Dense fibrous connective tissue
  138. Chordae tendinae is
    Dense fibrous connective tissue
  139. After birth, the ph in blood changes. What does this causes
    closes the ductus arteriosus  then it becomes the ligamentum arteriosum
  140. The systemic veins in fetus are high in
    molecular oxygen (atypical system)
  141. Right and left coronary arteries are branches of the
  142. Protoplasma is mostly composed of
  143. When contraction on skeletal muscle the distance between z discs______________
  144. When skeletal muscle contracts, what happens to the A line
    Stays the same
  145. When a skeletal muscle contracts, what happens to the h Zone
    H zone disappears. 
  146. When a skeletal muscle contracts, what happens to the I band
    The I band shortens
  147. What starts the sliding filament mechanism
    The release of Ca ++ (calcium ions)
  148. What starts the relaxation of a skeletal muscle.
    Ca ++going back to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  149. What is required in contraction and relaxation of a muscle (besides Ca ++)
    Adenotriphosphate (ATP)
  150. What is the shape of smooth muscle cell while contracted