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S-S vs S-R learning (theoretical concern)
the underlying processes of classical conditioning
the NS becomes directly associated with the UR and therefore come to elicit the same response as the UR
conditioning is viewed as a process of directly attaching a reflex response to a new stimulus
the NS becomes directly associated with the US and, because of this association, comes to elicit a response that is related to the US
Conditioning involves establishing a direct connection between a NS and a US
S-S theory; the CS acts as a substitute for the US
the CR and the UR should always be the same or at least highly similar
evidence to support the Stimulus-substitution theory?
the presentation of food (US) activates food center in the cortex, which activates salivation center in cortex, which elicits salivation
evidence appears to present problems for the stimulus-substitution theory?
the CR isn't always the same as the UR
S-S theory; the purpose of the CR (an adaptive response) is to prepare the organism for presentation of the US
what does the Preparatory-response model allow for?
allows for situations situations in which the CR and the UR can be the same or different
conditioning can result in a CR that appears to be the opposite of the original UR
preparatory-response theory; a CS that has been repeatedly associated with the primary response (a-process) to a US will eventually come to elicit a compensatory response (b-process)
classical conditioning in compensatory-response model
certain cues will lead to an elicited response that says that you need the drug
Accidental overdose explanations in compensatory-response model
A change in the environment from what you are normally accustomed to when you are taking the drug can lead to an accidental overdose
A given US can support only so much conditioning, and this amount of conditioning must be distributed among the various CS's available
What are the basic assumptions of the
stronger US's support more conditioning than do weaker US's
How is the Rescorla-Wagner theory explained in mathematical terms?
Change in associative strength in any particular trial = constant C(the maximum amount of conditioning Vmax - the amount of conditioning on any given trial Vn)
the amount of learning on each trial is a fixed proportion of that remains to be learned
How can the Rescorla-Wagner theory also be described in cognitive terms?
learning occurs when the US is surprising, a stimulus that could have helped predict the US will gain associative strength, and when the US is expected (not surprising), no more learning occurs
How does the Rescorla-Wagner theory explain
overshadowing and blocking effects?
Overshadowing: if the tone was even more salient than the light
the more salient CS picks up most of the associative value available in that setting
What is the overexpectation effect?
the decrease in the CR that occurs when two separately conditioned CS's are combined into a compound stimulus for further pairings with the US
Presenting the two CS's together leads to an "overexpectation" about what will follow
How was the overexpectation effect experiment set up, and what were the results?
A tone and a light are each conditioned with food to a maximum associative value of 8 units. If the tone and light are combined into a compound stimulus for future conditioning trials, the associative value of each stimulus must necessarily dcrease