NUR1423 Exam 2

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clugger
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NUR1423 Exam 2
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2014-10-15 11:08:37
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NUR1423 Exam
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NUR1423, Exam 2
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  1. HPV
    • human papillomavirus (shot)
    • against virus associated with cervical cancer
  2. menarche
    start of menstruation (first on)
  3. sexual assessment
    • knowledge
    • physical examination
    • STIs
    • risk for STIs
    • stage of sex. development
    • ask if all questions are answered (follow up)
    • websites for education (privacy)
  4. gonad
    body organ that produces the cells for reproduction
  5. oocytes
    cells that develop into female "eggs"
  6. androgenic hormones (role)
    • muscular development
    • growth
    • increase sebaceous gland secretions (acne)
    • made in adrenal cortex and testes/ovaries
    • closure of growth plates in bones (adrenarche)
  7. estrogen (role)
    • development of uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina
    • female fat distribution
    • beginning(thelarche)of/  breast development
  8. menarche facts
    • average 12.4 years
    • normal range 9-17 years
    • first 2 years often irregular
  9. terms: gynecology/andrology
    study of female/ male reproductive system
  10. when do the testes descend from the pelvic cavity?
    • 34th to 38th week of pregnancy
    • preterm babies closely watch-> outside of uterus testes do not descend as readily as inside of uterus
  11. term: cryptorchidism
    • testes remaining in pelvic cavity
    • -higher risk of cancer
    • -not good for sperm production (temperature)
  12. testes (fact)
    • -usually one (the left) testis hangs slightly lower than the other and larger
    •  -> slide past each other readily-> less trauma

    egg shaped

    feel firm and smooth

    self examination should be learned
  13. terms: the penis
    • the top: glans
    • skin casing: prepuce
    • circumcision-> better hygiene-> protects from HIV, STIs and penile cancer
  14. facts: prostate gland
    • chestnut sized gland right below the bladder
    • urethra passes through center of it
    • produces fluid for sperm protection (alkaline fluid to increase low ph-level in female urethra)
    • in middle life often bening swelling of prostate gland -> fertility and urination interference

    • -> surgery or medication
    • -> be sure it's beningn and not prostate cancer
  15. term: aspermia


    term: oligospermia
    absence of sperm

    fewer than 20 million sperm per ml
  16. fact: vasectomy
    severing of vas deferens (ductus deferens) to prevent passage of sperm

    vas deferense= spermatic cord

    hollow tube that carries sperm and where sperm mature
  17. facts: the ovaries
    • produce estrogen, progesterone, initiate and regulate menstrual cycle
    • after menopause size of uterus, breasts, ovaries decrease (atrophy)
    • -> increase in risk for osteoporosis (calcium tends to be withdrawn from skeleton
    • -> increase in cholesterol level in blood-> can lead to atherosclerosis (arterial disease) in older women

    ovarian cancer one of the leading causes of death (cancer grows without symptoms or pressure in the area, surrounding tissue not firm, pressure not felt until cancer very large)
  18. facts: the fallopian tubes
    10 cm long (interstitial 1cm, isthmus 2cm, ampulla 5cm, infundibular 2cm)

    interstitial in uterine wall only 1mm diameter

    isthmus also small diameter, the portion that is cut or sealed within tubal ligation or sterilization process

    ampulla is the place where fertilization usually takes place

    infundibulum has cilia to "catch" ovum from ovarie and transport through fallopian tube

    also with muscle layer to transport ovum, lined with mucus and cilia for transportation, may be nourishment

    open pathway (at infundibulum) into peritoneum (risk of infection peritonitis)
  19. facts: the uterus
    • muscular, pearshaped organ
    • posterior to bladder, anterior to rectum
    • 5-7cm lon, 5cm wide, 2.5cm deep
    • approximately 60 g
    • to receie ovum, nourish, protect, expel
    • after pregnancy slightly larger 9cm long...
    • uppermost is body, highest part is fundus
  20. facts: the fundus
    • palpate to determine uterine growth during pregnancy
    • measure force of contraction
    • assess returning of nonpregnant state after labor
  21. facts: the cervix
    • lowest portion of uterus
    • one third of total uterine size
    • half lies in vagina, half above vagina
  22. mucus in uterus
    • peak estrogen level-> as much as 700ml mucus per day
    • lowest estrogen level-> only a few ml
    • during pregnancy s much mucus that endocervix is plugged with mucus-> seal for protection (operculum) against infection
    • point of location from epithelium tissue to mucous membrane use for papanicolaou smear (often origin for cervical cancer)
  23. myometrium
    • muscle layers of uterus
    • enables equal pressure at time of labor
    • holds internal cervical closed to prevent preterm birth
    • constricts blood vessels after labor to limit bloodloss
  24. the uterine blood supply
    • close proximity of uterine blood vessels and ureters
    • important in procedures such as tubal legation, c-section, hysterectomy (removal of uterus)-> ureters can be injured
    • -> reason to check voiding after these procedures and assessment of color and blood
  25. what is a cystocele
    • bladder that herniates into anterior vagina
    • -> could cause urinary infection from status of urine

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