Anthro Final names
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The oldest species of australopithecine from East Africa and a likely ancestor to A. afarensis. Dates to about 4 mya and was found within Allia Bay and Kanapoi, in the eastern and southern ends of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Very large canines, parallel tooth rows in the upper jaw, and a lower third premolar with both a very large outer cusp and a very small inner cusp.
An early australopithecine from East Africa that had a brain size equivalent to a modern chimpanzee's and was thought to be a direct human ancestor. Found at two main sites: Laetoli, Tanzania, Kenya; and Hadar, in Ethiopia. The best known australopithecine, with hundreds of fossils from dozens of individuals dating 3.6-3.0 mya. "Lucy" is the most spectacular since it was a 40% complete adult skeleton. Teeth were more like human than ape. Cranial capacity varied from about 375 to 550 cc.
An early robust australopithecine from East Africa, with the hallmark physical traits of large teeth, large face, and massive muscle attachments on the cranium. The first specimen attributed to this species group is an edentulous mandible (Omo 18) found in southern Ethiopia, west of the Omo River, in 1967. Small cranial capacity (410 cc).
Formerly known as Zinjanthropus boisei; a later robust australopithecine from East Africa that was contemporaneous with A. robustus and A. africanus and had the robust cranial traits, including large teeth, large face, and heavy muscle attachments. A larger cranial capacity (500-550 cc).
A robust australopithecine from South Africa that may have descended from A. afarensis, was contemporaneous with A. boisei, and had the robust cranial traits of large teeth, large face, and heavy muscle attachments. Cranial capacity of 530 cc.
A gracile australopithecine from South Africa that was contemporaneous with A aethiopicus, A. garhi, and A. boisei and was likely ancestral to A. robustus. Cranial capacity of 485 cc.
A late australopithecine from East Africa that was contemporaneous with A. africanus and A. aethiopicus and was the likely ancestor to the Homo lineage. Cranial capacity 450 cc.
A species of the genus Homo, which lived from approximately 2.3 million to 1.4 million years ago at the beginning of the Pleistocene period. The discovery and description of this species is credited to both Mary and Louis Leakey, who found fossils in Tanzania, East Africa, between 1962 and 1964. The earliest known species of the genus Homo. Cranial capacity 363-600 cc.
Originated in Africa—and spread as far as China and Java—from the end of the Pliocene epoch to the later Pleistocene: about 1.8-.3 million years ago. Used more diverse and sophisticated tools than its predecessors; used tools of Oldowan technology and later progressed to the Acheulean. Cranial capacity of 850 cc.
Archaic Homo sapiens
Brain size is very similar to that of modern humans (1200 to 1400 cc.). The have a thick skull, prominent brow ridges and the lack of a prominent chin.
Modern Homo sapiens
The earliest known fossils of anatomically modern humans such as the Omo remains from 195kya, Homo sapiens idaltu from 160kya, and Qafzeh remains from 90kya are recognizably modern humans. Modern humans generally have more delicate skeletons. Their skulls that are more rounded. Their brow ridges are less protruding. They also have relatively high foreheads and pointed chins.
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