a hormone formed by beta cells in the pancreas. hormone co-secreted with insulin (made in beta cells). This hormone helps in 3 ways:
1. slows (normalizes) gastric emptying
2. suppresses glycogen from the liver
3. regulates food intake by centrally mediated
first phase response
Does the hormone amlyin help with pre or post prandial blood glucose?
POST PRANDIAL GLUCOSE
Incretin (gastrointestinal hormone)
aka GLP-1 receptors that are secreted upon the ingestion of food from the GI tract. Increases insulin response from beta cells.
first phase response
what is the synthetic drug to mimic amylin?
what meds try to mimic GLP-1 receptors?
what does GLP-1 stand for?
Glucagon like peptide-1
Functions of GLP-1?
-increase insulin secretion in pancreas
-decreases glucagon secretion
Alpha cells make and release a hormone called glucagon. The body sends a signal to the alpha cells to make glucagon when blood glucose falls too low. Then glucagon reaches the liver where it tells it to release glucose into the blood for energy. (MAKES SUGAR!)
a cell that makes insulin. Beta cells are located in the islets of the pancreas.-
What hormones does beta cells release?
insulin, C-peptide, and amylin
What does C-peptide do?
Helps to prevent neuropathy and other vascular deterioration
DPP-4 Inhibitor (gut hormone)
Blocks the action of DPP-4 enzyme which destroys incretin
a steady trickle of low levels of longer-acting insulin
(second phase insulin release)
Insulin poured into bloodstream rapidly with a meal or snack to cover glucose entering blood (first phase insulin release)
main form of carbohydrates storage in liver and muscle, readily converted to glucose to satisfy energy needs
when glucose turns into glycogen for storage to use as energy later
the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in order to use the stored energy
formation of lipids to store energy
breakdown of lipids to produce energy
Why does insulin become ineffective in most type 2 diabetes patients?
It starts with insulin resistance where body doesn't use insulin effectively which causes body to overcompensate and produce more than necessary which tires out the B cells and causes damage to proper function