Developmental Theories and Key Concepts

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  1. Stages: Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational
    Cognitive Development (Piaget)
  2. Lifespan stages: Trust vs. Mistrust, etc.
    Psychosocial Theory (Erikson)
  3. Learning process where neutral stimulus produces an involuntary response
    Classical Conditioning (Pavlov & Watson)
  4. Use of consequences to shape voluntary behavior
    Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
  5. Observational learning, modeling
    Social Cognitive Learning Theory (Bandura)
  6. Zone of Proximal Development - importance of social interaction in cognitive development
    Sociocultural Theory (Vygotsky)
  7. You, microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem
    Bioecological Model (Bronfenbrenner)
  8. Development is the changing relationship between our own complexity and a multilayered context
    Developmental Systems Theory (Lerner / Gottlieb)
  9. Growing and developing to achieve one's potential
    Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow)
  10. Children create, organize, and transform knowledge through active engagement in their environment
    Constructivism (Montessori)
  11. First paper & pencil test that reflected a child's mental age; later the mental age was divided by the chronological age
    Intelligence (Binet)
  12. 8 equal types: Linguistic, Musical, Logical, Spatial, Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Naturalist
    Multiple Intelligences (Gardner)
  13. Personality traits of infants (Easy, Difficult, Slow to warm up)
    Temperament (Chess & Thomas)
  14. Warm, intimate relationship (Secure, Avoidant, Ambivalent, Disorganized)
    Attachment (Bowlby / Ainsworth)
  15. Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive, Neglectful
    Parenting Styles (Baumrind)
  16. Develops as a result of crisis and commitment (Confusion, Foreclosure, Moratorium, Achievement)
    Identity Status (Marcia)
  17. What all children need for successful outcomes
    40 Developmental Assets (Search Institute)
  18. Preconventional, Conventional, Postconventional; moving from 'fear of punishment' to 'universal human rights'
    Stages of Moral Development (Kohlberg)
  19. Moving from self-related concerns to sense of responsibility for others to principle of non-violence
    Ethics of Care (Gilligan)
  20. Dualism, Relativism, Commitment; Moving from simple 'right and wrong' to considering multiple perspectives
    Ethical Development (Perry)
  21. Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
    Five Factor Personality Traits (McRae & Costa)
  22. Adult development of happiness and successful aging
    Harvard Longitudinal Study (Vaillant)
  23. Adult developmental stages from 'Individuation' to 'Settling down' to 'Late Adulthood and Death'
    Adult Phases and Transitions (Levinson)
  24. Goal is to discern life's purpose and the forces of life (Somatic, Psychological, Noetic Dimensions)
    Spirituality (Frankl / Jung)
  25. Description of the emotions underlying the process of coping with death
    Stages of Grief (Kubler-Ross and Sanders)
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Developmental Theories and Key Concepts
Developmental theories and their key concepts
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