US History II Post Civil War

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Fmarie
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US History II Post Civil War
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2014-10-14 14:24:21
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  1. Emancipation Proclamation


    -Identify the term

    -Provide a general time frame, and

    -Explain the term’s significance.
    • -A presidential proclamation, or
    • declaration by Abe Lincoln calling for the freedom of all slaves in states that
    • were a part of the rebellion

    • -Excluded 4 states, Kentucky, Delaware,
    • Missouri, Maryland

    • -Didn’t take place all at once, kept 4
    • million slaves under enslavement

    -January 1, 1863
  2. Presidential Restoration
    • -         
    • 1865 – 1869

    • -         
    • Andrew Johnson
    • prounion, anti secession

    • -         
    • Restoration pan:
    • Give control back to southern states

    • -         
    • Result: Southern
    • White Elites: Black codes

    • - Johnson’s
    • Impeachment
  3. Radical Republicans
    -Radical republicans of congress, to 1877

    • - Fight for equality of all citizens in
    • the US

    - Lincoln’s party

    • - Pushed through the 13th
    • Amendment

    - Abolished slavery
  4. 14th Amendment
    • -         
    • 1968

    • -         
    • Defined civil
    • rights for all

    • -         
    • Made black codes
    • illegal

    • -         
    • President Johnson
    • vetoed it

    • -         
    • Congress overrode
    • it

    First time in history that congress overrode a presidential veto
  5. Sharecropping
    • -         
    • Reconstruction
    • Era: 1865-1877

    • -         
    • White southerners
    • kept their land, African americans got nothing

    • -         
    • Sharecropping was
    • an arranged labor contract to let African Americans rent a portion of land in
    • exchange for crop duties.                                           

    • -         
    • Resulted in debt
  6. Homestead Act
    • -         
    • 1862

    • -         
    • Signed into
    • effect by Lincoln to encourage western migration

    Provided 160 acres of land for $10, if people worked it for 5 years
  7. Morrill Land Grant Act
    • -         
    • 1862

    • -         
    • Law signed by
    • Lincoln to extend higher education to every state

    • -         
    • Provided each
    • state with 30,000 acres per congressional member

    • -         
    • Public college
    • course selections provided course selections that would better society,
    • including agriculture.
  8. Panic of 1873
    • -         
    • 1873 Stock Market
    • crashes. Businesses begin laying off workers, railroads close.

    • -         
    • Economy ceases.

    • -         
    • Lasts until 1878

    • -         
    • 10,000 Businesses
    • die

    1874 Iron working stops
  9. Freedmen's Bureau
    • -         
    • 1865

    • -         
    • Created to assist
    • in the transition from slavery to freedom

    • Offers medical, establishes school, churches, manages economic and
    • social relations of freed African Americans
  10. Wounded Knee Massacre
    • -         
    • 1890, South
    • Dakota

    • -         
    • U.S. Army enters
    • camp of Natives asks to surrender weapons. Scuffle occurs, and firefight breaks
    • out

    • -         
    • Some natives
    • escape, others are chased down. 200 Native Americans killed

    • -         
    • Govt tried to
    • force natives out to monopolize on valuable land by hunting buffalo so they
    • would move
  11. Robber Barons
    • -         
    • 1870-1900

    • People or organizations who engaged in unethical behavior and robbed the
    • economy using political influence at the expense of every one else
  12. John D. Rockerfeller
    • -         
    • 1839-1937

    • -         
    • Founder of
    • Standard Oil

    • -         
    • Nearly monopolizd
    • oil industry

    • -         
    • Horizontal integration
    • – Bought out all competetors and made deals with the railroad industry to
    • control prices

    • -         
    • Monopoly declared
    • illegal
  13. Andrew Carnegie
    • -         
    • 1835-1919

    • -         
    • The owner of
    • Carnegie Steel Co.       

    • -         
    • Utilized the Bessemer
    • process for smelting to revolutionize steel production in the US

    • -         
    • Implemented
    • vertical ingetration to monopolize – Had control over every aspect of mining industry
  14. Laissez Faire Economics
    • -         
    • 1870-1900

    • -         
    • Means “By the
    • people”

    • -         
    • Transactions are
    • free from government intervention
  15. Tenement Houses
    • -         
    • 1870-1900      

    • -         
    • As urban
    • population increases due to immigration and urbanization

    • -         
    • City life is the
    • new way of life in America

    • -         
    • 8 Cities had 1
    • million pop

    • -         
    • Tenement housing
    • was a cramped way of life.

    Was a rundown, cramped apartment in a poor part of town
  16. Trusts (Monopolies)
    • -         
    • The gilded age:
    • 1870-1900

    • -         
    • When one business
    • is the only seller of a good or service

    • -         
    • Often due to the
    • lack of government intervention

    • -         
    • A monopoly is
    • free to set any price it chooses

    • -         
    • Vertical
    • integration: buy out all suppliers of the industry to control price

    • -         
    • Horizontal
    • integration: buy out all competetors to rule more of market
  17. Knights of labor
    • -         
    • 1869 - 1918

    • -         
    • A call for change
    • in the labor industry. Radical workers, 600,000 members, any race, sex

    • -         
    • Called for no
    • child labor, wanted equal pay, and health and safety
  18. American Federation of Labor
    • -         
    • 1970’s

    • -         
    • Wanted greater
    • share of wealth

    • -         
    • Higher wages,
    • shorter hours.

    • -         
    • Only white,
    • skilled men.
  19. Eugene V. Debs
    • -         
    • American Railway
    • Union Founder

    • -         
    • Socialist Party
    • Candidate for presidency

    • -         
    • Faced federal
    • charges for obstructing delivery of mail in Pullman strike

    • -         
    • Convicted under
    • the espionage act for a speech denouncing American participation in WWI, Serves
    • 5 out of 10 years
  20. Great Railroad Strike
    • -         
    • 1877

    • -         
    • Companies cut
    • wages by 10%, still feeling impact of depression. Then another 10%

    • -         
    • Workers strike on
    • the railroad tracks

    • -         
    • Soldiers disperse
    • crowds, and 100 die
  21. Haymarket Riot
    • -         
    • 1886

    • -         
    • Labor protests by
    • Knights of Labor in Chicago Haymarket

    • -         
    • Protester throws
    • bomb at police, 8 die, 70 injured
  22. Homestead Strike
    • -         
    • 1892

    • -         
    • Carnegie cuts
    • wages by 22%, workers strike in Homestead, PA. Carnegie tries to negotiate,
    • workers refuse

    • -         
    • Hires temp
    • workers and Pinkerton police to keep the peace with a crowd of 10,000 strikers
    • who were armed

    • -         
    • When Police got
    • there on the first day, they were met with gunfire. 9 die
  23. Pullman Strike
    • -         
    • 1894

    • -         
    • George Pullman’s
    • Palace Car Co.  Chicago, IL

    • -         
    • Cuts wages 24%
    • but prices, rent stay the same.

    • -         
    • Workers complain
    • to American Railway Union Founder, Eugene Debs, who shuts rails to Pullman Co.

    • -         
    • President
    • supports Pullman, says stopping mail delivery is a federal offense
  24. Populist Party
    • -         
    • 1891

    • -         
    • “The People”s
    • Party

    • -         
    • Wanted Lazes
    • Faire free approach

    • -         
    • Other groups were
    • forming, including farmer’s alliance, who wanted their own representatives in
    • government
  25. Patronage
    • -         
    • 1890’s-1900’s

    • -         
    • - Political
    • corruption ran high with lezzaes fair approach

    • -         
    • Giving jobs and
    • granting favors to those who demonstrated loyalty to those of a particular political
    • party, rather than skill
  26. Teddy Roosevelt
    • -         
    • 1901-1908 After
    • McKinley’s assassination

    • -         
    • Idea was that
    • government should lead efforts to change society’s ills

    • -         
    • Sought to
    • eliminate political corruption in big businesses

    • -         
    • Advocated for conservation

    • -         
    • Oversaw foreign
    • affairs – Dug canal through panama – holds for 70 years
  27. Northern Securities Co vs. USA
    • -         
    • 1904

    • -         
    • Court ruled to
    • abolish Northern Securites Co. on the basis that it was acting as a monopoly

    • -         
    • They drove up
    • prices, making consumers pay more

    • -         
    • First case tried
    • on this basis. Ruled to cease business
  28. Clayton anti-trust acct
    • -         
    • 1914

    • -         
    • Roosevelt issues
    • anti trust acts against big businesses

    • -         
    • Which drives down
    • rates. Numerous lawsuits issued, including Standard oil, and tobacco companies.
    • Lezzaes Fair gone.

    • -         
    • Limits the use of
    • monopolies, and hinders competition between businesses
  29. Pure food and drug act
    • -         
    • 1906

    • -         
    • All ingredients
    • must be properly labeled.

    • -         
    • Bans the sale of
    • unsanitary food and drugs

    • -         
    • Regulated by the
    • FDA

    • -         
    • Outlawed unsafe
    • materials
  30. Meat Inspection Act
    • -         
    • 1906

    • -         
    • Regulated the
    • meat industry after middle class demanded changes.

    • -         
    • Established
    • standards for meat industry, including the processing, packaging, and sale of
    • meats.
  31. 19th Amendment
    • -         
    • Prohibits anyone
    • from being denied the right to vote based on sex

    • -         
    • 1920

    • -         
    • Was a part of the
    • women’s suffrage movement
  32. Robert Lafolette
    • -         
    • Wisconsin
    • Republican Congressman 1920’s

    • -         
    • Initiated minimum
    • wage

    • -         
    • Progressive
    • taxation – Taxes based on income

    • -         
    • Railroad rate
    • reform

    • -         
    • Workers comp

    • -         
    • The Wisconsin idea:
  33. The wisconsin idea
    • -         
    • Use our educated
    • people to craft policy on education. Policy on economy? Use economists.  1920’s
  34. Gifford Pinchot
    • -         
    • Founder of US
    • Forest Service in 1905

    • -         
    • Roosevelt
    • quadruples the amount of reserved forests

    • -         
    • Created 5 new
    • national parks

    • -         
    • Proclaimed 18
    • national monuments

    • -         
    • Placed 230 mil
    • acres under protection

    • -         
    • Determined
    • resource guidelines
  35. George Creel
    • -         
    • Progressive investigative
    • Journalist (Yellow Journalist) during WW1

    • -         
    • Head of the
    • Committee on Public Info, a propaganda agency for the government

    • -         
    • Organized 75,000
    • 4 minute men: They said why govt was fighting, why it was a good idea. Depicted
    • germans as unnegotiable.
  36. Committee on Public Info
    • -         
    • How the
    • government convinced the public

    A propaganda agency to release government news during WW1
  37. The espionage Act
    • -         
    • 1917

    • -         
    • Criminalizes
    • mutiny and desertion and rebellion

    • -         
    • 1900 men were prosecuted,
    • including Eugene Debs, who got 10 year prison sentence, but only served 5

    - Anti first amendment
  38. Self Determination
    • -         
    • 1919 Versaillas
    • Peace Conference

    • -         
    • Having control of
    • your own political affairs, in reference to colonized nations
  39. League of Nations
    • -         
    • Based in Geneva,
    • Switzerland, a neutral country. Its purpose was to ensure war never broke out
    • again.

    • -         
    • Could do three
    • things: - Ask countries tos it down and discuss disputes peacefully

    • -         
    • Could introduce
    • economic force

    • -         
    • Could introduce
    • physical, military force

    • -         
    • Big nations
    • refused to join, due to war and big egos

    • -         
    • Russia and
    • Germany were banned from joining

    • -         
    • 1917
  40. Palmer Raids
    • -         
    • 1919-1920

    • -         
    • Under attorney
    • general Palmer

    • -         
    • A round up of
    • radicals, people who had un-American ideals, anarchists, and immigrants

    • -         
    • 4000 prosecuted,
    • including vandezzi and Sacco, Italian Immigrants who were draft dodgers accused
    • of murder and robbery
  41. Bonus Army
    • -         
    • 1932

    • -         
    • Assembly of 43000
    • marchers, and 17000 war vets who demanded early payment of their WWI bonuses

    • -         
    • Bloodshed.
    • President veto, congress overrode

    • -         
    • 2 Billion paid
    • out. Leading to GI bill
  42. Mandate System
    • -         
    • 1918

    • -         
    • An authorization
    • by the league of nations to a member to govern a former german or Turkish colony.
    • The territory would be called a mandated territory

    • -         
    • Mandated
    • territories were divided into 3 groups based on location and political and
    • economic development, then assigned countries to govern over them.

    • -         
    • Sykes Picot
    • System 1915-1916: Secret agreement between UK and France over division of Middle
    • East trade routes. The result of the division of the Arabs caused tension,
    • dividing Israelis and Palestinians

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