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Examples of domesticated birds raised for meat
-emu & ostrich
How is ready to eat poultry classified as? (2)
Age & gender
Chicken) broilers/fryers: how much do these weigh?
Chicken) broilers/fryers: 3 characteristics about these?
Chicken) roasters: how much do these weigh?
Chicken) roasters: characteristic of breastbone
Breastbone is less flexible
Chicken) capons: how much do they weigh?
Chicken) capons: what is significant about tenderness and juiciness of the meat?
It is comparable to broiler/fryers
Chicken) Cornish game hens: how much do they weigh?
Chicken) Cornish game hens: what is significant about their meat?
It is tender meat
Chicken) mature chickens: characteristics of their meat, skin, and breastbone (3)
-meat is tougher
-skin is coarser
-breastbone less flexible
Turkey) fryer-roasters: how much do they weigh?
Turkey) fryer-roasters: characteristic of their age?
Turkey) how much do hens weigh?
Turkey) how much do toms weigh?
Composition of the meat) in what 3 ways is it similar to meat?
Composition of the meat) what determines its color?
Inspection) what did the wholesome poultry products act 1968 state?
Poultry shipped across state lines must be inspected
Inspection) why did USDA inspect before and after slaughter?
To ensure that poultry was being processed under sanitary conditions
Inspection) which plan are plants encouraged to follow?
Grading) 2 facts by this
-paid by producer
Grading) what are the 3 grades?
*has a USDA grade shield
Grading) when is the USDA grade shield present
When USDa graded it
Grading) what are the 4 criteria?
Grading) criteria: conformation
Shape of carcass
Grading) criteria: fleshing
Amount of meat on bird
Grading) criteria: fat
Amount & distribution
Grading) criteria: belmishes
Best have none
What are the 6 types of poultry
4 styles of poultry
- -convenience categories
- *smaller pieces
7 types of processed poultry
Misc) how are chicken nuggets usually made?
Made with meat and skin
Misc) are hormones allowed in poultry?
Misc) under what condition are antibiotics allowed?
There has to be a withdrawal period to insure there are no antibiotics before slaughter
*can use them while growing up but must go cold turkey before they get slaughtered
Misc) are additives allowed in fresh chicken?
Misc) are additives allowed in processed chicken?
Misc) what's the poultry buyers guide?
Provides method for standardization among poultry products
How much to buy) what's the rule of thumb?
.5 pound + per serving
How much to buy) what should one factor when purchasing ready to cook poultry? (2)
Factor in inedible bone & unwanted fat when buying
How much to buy) what is the exception for the rule of thumb? and why?
Ducks and geese bc they have more fat to melt off
How much to buy) which type of poultry is the most economical ?
Chicken most eaten in worldwide) mexico
Chicken most eaten in worldwide) Chinese (2)
Cut up and stir fry
Chicken most eaten in worldwide) Italians?
Whole roast chicken with rosemary
Chicken most eaten in worldwide) africa
Chicken with tomatoes & peanuts, ground nut stew
Chicken most eaten in worldwide) French
Chicken braised in red wine
*coq au vin
Chicken most eaten in worldwide) North American (2)
-chicken & dumpling
Safety tips) best way to thaw frozen poultry
Best done in fridge
Safety tips) 2 safety tips for stuffing
-prepared & cooked separately
-minimum temp of 165
Safety tips) what does brining do?
Increases water content resulting in juicy, flavorful meat
*sucks up the liquid content onto the meat creating this tasty meat
Thawing frozen poultry) how many days does it take to thaw 3.5 pounds of chicken?
Thawing frozen poultry) how many days does it take to thaw out turkey?
*depends on weight
Changed during prep) when properly prepared, how does it come out?
Changed during prep) when it is overcooked, how does it come out?
Dry, tough, stringy
Changed during prep) what can the fats be used for? (2)
To baste poultry or create sauces
Changed during prep) what is basting? (2)
-keeps meat tender & moist
Changed during prep) what happens to the fat during heating?
It melts off
Determining doneness) what should be the internal temp?
Determining doneness) color change
-golden brown skin with juices running clear
Determining doneness) touch (2)
- -Firm flesh
- *white more than dark
-drumstick should easily move at joint
Determining doneness) time/weight charts
Should be on packaging
Determining doneness) how long does it take for a 3.5 pound chicken at 350 degrees?
Determining doneness) what is determining factor about how long turkey will take to cook?
It all depends on the weight of the trueky
Stuffing) what is stuffing?
product is placed in cavity if a bird during cooking
heated separately in a pan and served as a side
Stuffing) what is mirepoix? (3)
-2;1;1 ratio by weight of onions, celery, carrots
-flavored with spices & herbs
Dry-heat prep) what's breast up?
Juices escape and can be used as asauce
Dry-heat prep) what is breast down?
juice stays in creating more juicy meat
Dry-heat prep) what can prevent cracking skin and dry meat? (2)
Season inside the cavity and oil skin
Dry-heat prep) how often should you baste bird with juices?
Every 20 mins
Dry-heat prep) What is trussed and why is it done?
Tie legs & wings agsint body of bird to prevent overcooking before breast is done
Dry-heat prep) ducks and geese: due to high fat content what it required?
Pricking the skin to release the fat
Dry-heat prep) ducks and geese: should you stuff cavity why or why not?
no bc the product will become soaked in fat
Dry-heat prep) 4 ways to carve?
Dry-heat prep) how long should you wait to carve turkey and why?
20 mins to help flesh firm and prevent cooling and drying
Dry-heat prep) broiling & grilling: what type of pieces are usually used?
Cup up pieces
Dry-heat prep) broiling & grilling: where does marination occur?
Should take place inn fridge
Dry-heat prep) broiling & grilling: what should be done with utensils exposed to raw meat?
They should be washed before used for serving
Dry-heat prep) broiling & grilling: skin stance (2)
Skin should be up when oven broiling
Skin should be down when grilling
Dry-heat prep) broiling & grilling: when should you add sauces?
During the last 15 mins
Dry-heat prep) frying: saute
Cook small pieces for quick prep
Dry-heat prep) frying: pan fry - when to bread and why?
-breaded or floured before cooking to keep moisture from being lost and adds flavor
Dry-heat prep) frying: deep fry (2)
-breaded and submerged in fat
-cook at 325-350
Dry-heat prep) frying: stir fry (2)
-lightly frying bite sized bone pieces
-can add veggies, soy sauce, other seasoning
Moist-heat prep) which method is good for older, tougher bird?
Braising or fricassing
Moist-heat prep) function of braising or fricassing?
Slow, moist heating tenderizer meat
Moist-heat prep) what is stewing? (4)
-cover in cold salted water
-bring to boil
Moist-heat prep) poaching? (4)
-cook in 1.3 cup of water
-bring to boil
-simmer about 10-15 mins
Storage of poultry) what is 2 main bacteria?
Storage of poultry) refrigerated : how long can fresh ready to eat poultry be kept at less 40 F?
Up to 3 days
Storage of poultry) refrigerated : how should it be stored in?
Vapor proof wrapping to avoid contamination
Storage of poultry) refrigerated : where should it be kept?
Best to keeop on bottom shelf
Storage of poultry) frozen : whole poultry can be stored at 0F for how long?
Storage of poultry) frozen : cooked leftovers can be stored up to how long?