Exam 6

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  1. Examples of domesticated birds raised for meat




    -guinea fowl


    -game birds

    -emu & ostrich
  2. How is ready to eat poultry classified as? (2)
    Age & gender
  3. Chicken) broilers/fryers: how much do these weigh?
    3-5 pounds
  4. Chicken) broilers/fryers: 3 characteristics about these?
    -soft skin

    -tender meat

    -flexible breastbone
  5. Chicken) roasters: how much do these weigh?
    6-8 pounds
  6. Chicken) roasters: characteristic of breastbone
    Breastbone is less flexible
  7. Chicken) capons: how much do they weigh?
    12-14 pounds
  8. Chicken) capons: what is significant about tenderness and juiciness of the meat?
    It is comparable to broiler/fryers
  9. Chicken) Cornish game hens: how much do they weigh?
    2 pounds
  10. Chicken) Cornish game hens: what is significant about their meat?
    It is tender meat
  11. Chicken) mature chickens: characteristics of their meat, skin, and breastbone (3)
    -meat is tougher

    -skin is coarser

    -breastbone less flexible
  12. Turkey) fryer-roasters: how much do they weigh?
    7 pounds
  13. Turkey) fryer-roasters: characteristic of their age?
    Very young
  14. Turkey) how much do hens weigh?
    14 pounds
  15. Turkey) how much do toms weigh?
    26 pounds
  16. Composition of the meat) in what 3 ways is it similar to meat?
    -muscle tissue


    -adipose tissue
  17. Composition of the meat) what determines its color?
  18. Inspection) what did the wholesome poultry products act 1968 state?
    Poultry shipped across state lines must be inspected
  19. Inspection) why did USDA inspect before and after slaughter?
    To ensure that poultry was being processed under sanitary conditions
  20. Inspection) which plan are plants encouraged to follow?
  21. Grading) 2 facts by this

    -paid by producer
  22. Grading) what are the 3 grades?
    A,B, C

    *has a USDA grade shield
  23. Grading) when is the USDA grade shield present
    When USDa graded it
  24. Grading) what are the 4 criteria?



  25. Grading) criteria: conformation
    Shape of carcass
  26. Grading) criteria: fleshing
    Amount of meat on bird
  27. Grading) criteria: fat
    Amount & distribution
  28. Grading) criteria: belmishes
    Best have none
  29. What are the 6 types of poultry





  30. 4 styles of poultry



    • -convenience categories
    • *smaller pieces
  31. 7 types of processed poultry
    -canned/dried soups

    -frozen dinners

    -pot pies


    -hot dogs


  32. Misc) how are chicken nuggets usually made?
    Made with meat and skin
  33. Misc) are hormones allowed in poultry?
  34. Misc) under what condition are antibiotics allowed?
    There has to be a withdrawal period to insure there are no antibiotics before slaughter

    *can use them while growing up but must go cold turkey before they get slaughtered
  35. Misc) are additives allowed in fresh chicken?
  36. Misc) are additives allowed in processed chicken?
  37. Misc) what's the poultry buyers guide?
    Provides method for standardization among poultry products
  38. How much to buy) what's the rule of thumb?
    .5 pound + per serving
  39. How much to buy) what should one factor when purchasing ready to cook poultry? (2)
    Factor in inedible bone & unwanted fat when buying
  40. How much to buy) what is the exception for the rule of thumb? and why?
    Ducks and geese bc they have more fat to melt off
  41. How much to buy) which type of poultry is the most economical ?
    Ready-to-cook poultry
  42. Chicken most eaten in worldwide) mexico
    Shredded tacos
  43. Chicken most eaten in worldwide) Chinese (2)
    Cut up and stir fry
  44. Chicken most eaten in worldwide) Italians?
    Whole roast chicken with rosemary
  45. Chicken most eaten in worldwide) africa
    Chicken with tomatoes & peanuts, ground nut stew
  46. Chicken most eaten in worldwide) French
    Chicken braised in red wine

    *coq au vin
  47. Chicken most eaten in worldwide) North American (2)
    -fried chicken

    -chicken & dumpling
  48. Safety tips) best way to thaw frozen poultry
    Best done in fridge
  49. Safety tips) 2 safety tips for stuffing
    -prepared & cooked separately

    -minimum temp of 165
  50. Safety tips) what does brining do?
    Increases water content resulting in juicy, flavorful meat

    *sucks up the liquid content onto the meat creating this tasty meat
  51. Thawing frozen poultry) how many days does it take to thaw 3.5 pounds of chicken?
    1 day
  52. Thawing frozen poultry) how many days does it take to thaw out turkey?
    1-5 days

    *depends on weight
  53. Changed during prep) when properly prepared, how does it come out?
    Tender juicy
  54. Changed during prep) when it is overcooked, how does it come out?
    Dry, tough, stringy
  55. Changed during prep) what can the fats be used for? (2)
    To baste poultry or create sauces
  56. Changed during prep) what is basting? (2)
    -adds flavor

    -keeps meat tender & moist
  57. Changed during prep) what happens to the fat during heating?
    It melts off
  58. Determining doneness)  what should be the internal temp?
  59. Determining doneness) color change
    -golden brown skin with juices running clear
  60. Determining doneness) touch (2)
    • -Firm flesh
    • *white more than dark

    -drumstick should easily move at joint
  61. Determining doneness) time/weight charts
    Should be on packaging
  62. Determining doneness) how long does it take for a 3.5 pound chicken at 350 degrees?
    1.5 hours
  63. Determining doneness) what is determining factor about how long turkey will take to cook?
    It all depends on the weight of the trueky
  64. Stuffing) what is stuffing?
    product is placed in cavity if a bird during cooking
  65. Stuffing) dressing?
    heated separately in a pan and served as a side
  66. Stuffing) what is mirepoix? (3)
    -2;1;1 ratio by weight of onions, celery, carrots

    -lightly sauteed

    -flavored with spices & herbs
  67. Dry-heat prep) what's breast up?
    Juices escape and can be used as asauce
  68. Dry-heat prep) what is breast down?
    juice stays in creating more juicy meat
  69. Dry-heat prep) what can prevent cracking skin and dry meat? (2)
    Season inside the cavity and oil skin
  70. Dry-heat prep) how often should you baste bird with juices?
    Every 20 mins
  71. Dry-heat prep) What is trussed and why is it done?
    Tie legs & wings agsint body of bird to prevent overcooking before breast is done
  72. Dry-heat prep) ducks and geese: due to high fat content what it required?
    Pricking the skin to release the fat
  73. Dry-heat prep) ducks and geese: should you stuff cavity why or why not?
    no bc the product will become soaked in fat
  74. Dry-heat prep) 4 ways to carve?



  75. Dry-heat prep) how long should you wait to carve turkey and why?
    20 mins to help flesh firm and prevent cooling and drying
  76. Dry-heat prep) broiling & grilling: what type of pieces are usually used?
    Cup up pieces
  77. Dry-heat prep) broiling & grilling: where does marination occur?
    Should take place inn fridge
  78. Dry-heat prep) broiling & grilling: what should be done with utensils exposed to raw meat?
    They should be washed before used for serving
  79. Dry-heat prep) broiling & grilling: skin stance (2)
    Skin should be up when oven broiling

    Skin should be down when grilling
  80. Dry-heat prep) broiling & grilling: when should you add sauces?
    During the last 15 mins
  81. Dry-heat prep) frying: saute
    Cook small pieces for quick prep
  82. Dry-heat prep) frying: pan fry - when to bread and why?
    -breaded or floured before cooking to keep moisture from being lost and adds flavor
  83. Dry-heat prep) frying: deep fry (2)
    -breaded and submerged in fat

    -cook at 325-350
  84. Dry-heat prep) frying: stir fry (2)
    -lightly frying bite sized bone pieces

    -can add veggies, soy sauce, other seasoning
  85. Moist-heat prep) which method is good for older, tougher bird?
    Braising or fricassing
  86. Moist-heat prep) function of braising or fricassing?
    Slow, moist heating tenderizer meat
  87. Moist-heat prep) what is stewing? (4)
    -cover in cold salted water

    -bring to boil

    -reduce heat

  88. Moist-heat prep) poaching? (4)
    -cook in 1.3 cup of water

    -bring to boil


    -simmer about 10-15 mins
  89. Storage of poultry) what is 2 main bacteria?

  90. Storage of poultry) refrigerated :  how long can fresh ready to eat poultry be kept at less 40 F?
    Up to 3 days
  91. Storage of poultry) refrigerated : how should it be stored in?
    Vapor proof wrapping to avoid contamination
  92. Storage of poultry) refrigerated : where should it be kept?
    Best to keeop on bottom shelf
  93. Storage of poultry) frozen : whole poultry can be stored at 0F for how long?
    6-12 months
  94. Storage of poultry) frozen : cooked leftovers can be stored up to how long?
    4 months
Card Set:
Exam 6
2014-10-16 06:26:14

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