A&P exam 2

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  1. Muscles of Facial Expression:

    what is the function of Depressor anguli oris?
  2. Muscles of Facial Expression:

    what is the function of orbicularis oculi?
    blink/close eyes
  3. Muscles of Facial Expression:

    what is the function of zygomaticus major?
  4. Muscles of Facial Expression:

    what is the function of orbicularis oris?
    close mouth/kiss
  5. Muscles of Facial Expression:

    what is the function of frontal belly of occiptofrontalis?
    wrinkle forehead, raise eyebrows
  6. Muscles of Facial Expression:

    what is the function of platysma?
    tense skin of neck
  7. what are the functions of extrinsic muscles of the eye (EOMs)?
    • medial rectus: adducts eyes medially
    • lateral rectus: abducts eyes laterally
    • inferior rectus: depresses eye inferiorly, and adducts eyes medially
    • superior rectus: elevates eyes superiorly, adducts eyes medially
    • inferior oblique: elevates eyes superiorly; abducts eyes laterally
    • superior oblique: depresses eyes inferiorly; abducts eyes laterally
  8. what cranial nerves innervates EOMs?
    • "LaSot"
    • lateral rectus: Abducens (CN VI)
    • superior oblique: Trochlear (CN IV)

    • medial rectus: Oculomotor (CN III)
    • superior rectus: CN III
    • inferior rectus: CN III
    • inferior oblique: CN III
  9. what is the function sternocleidomastoid muscle?
    • unilateral action: lateral flexion, rotation of head to opposite side
    • bilateral action: flexes neck
  10. what is the difference between internal and external intercostals?
    • external intercostals: elevates ribs during inhalation 
    • internal intercostals: depresses ribs during forced exhalation
  11. diaphragm
    • major muscle of respiration 
    • separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities 
    • contraction and relaxation cause an increase and decrease in the vertical dimensions of the thoracic cavity
  12. function of Rectus abdominis
    • flexes vertebral column; compresses abdominal wall; used in forced exhalation 
    • innervates: spinal nerve T7-T12
  13. what is the function, location, and innervation of the Trapezius muscle?
    function: superior fibers: elevates and superiorly rotate scapula; middle fibers: retract scapula; inferior fibers: depress scapula

    origin: occipital bone (superior nuchal line); ligamentum nuchae; spinous processes of C7-T12

    insertion: clavical; acromion process and spine of scapula 

    innervation: accessory nerve (CN XI)
  14. list the rotator cuff muscles.
    • supraspinatus
    • infraspinatus
    • tres minor
    • subscapularis

  15. which rotator cuff muscle is commonly injured?
    • supraspinatus
    • because the tendon of this muscle may become impinged (pinched)
  16. describe what is a latissimus dorsi muscles and it's function.
    • a broad, triangular muscle located on the inferior part of the back.
    • the "swimmer's muscle"
  17. which muscle is responsible for extending the elbow?
    tricep brachii
  18. what is the function of the flexor retinaculum?
    connect and support bones and structures, maintaining correct anatomical positioning
  19. what is the difference between thenar group and hypothenar group?
    • thenar group: forms the thick, fleshy mass (thenar eminence) at the base of the thumb
    • hypothenar group: forms a smaller fleshy mass (hypothenar eminence) at the base of the little finger
  20. name the gluteus muscles and their functions.
    • gluteus maximus: extends thigh; laterally rotates thigh
    • gluteus medius: abducts thigh; medially rotates thigh 
    • gluteus minimus: abducts thigh, mediallt rotates thigh
  21. what are the hamstring muscles and their function?
    • biceps femoris (short head/long head): extends thigh (long head only); flexes leg (both short and long head); laterally rotates leg
    • semimembranosus: extends thigh and flexes leg; medially rotates
    • semitendonosus: extend thigh and flexes leg, medially rotates leg
  22. name the quadriceps femoris muscles and their function.
    • rectus femoris: extends leg; flexes thigh
    • vastus intermedius: extends legs
    • vastus lateralis: extends legs
    • vastus medialis: extends legs
  23. what is the longest muscle of the body?
  24. what is the general function of the nervous system?
    • sensory input
    • integration
    • motor output
  25. what is the difference between afferent and efferent?
    • afferent: (Sensory Nervous System) responsible for receiving sensory information from receptors and transmitting information to CNS. "inflow"
    • efferent: (Motor Nervous System) responsible for transmitting motor impulses from CNS to muscles/glands. "conducting outward"
  26. difference between somatic sensory, visceral sensory, somatic motor, and autonomic motor.
    Image Upload
  27. parts of the neuron:

    conducts nerve impulses from one part of the body to another
  28. parts of neuron:

    cell body
    responsible for receiving, integrating, and sending  nerve impulses.
  29. parts of neuron:

    contains nucleolus- requires the production of many proteins.
  30. parts of neuron:

    conduct nerve impulses toward the cell body ("input")
  31. parts of neuron:

    conducts nerve impulses away from cell body ("output")
  32. parts of neuron:

    axon hillock
    connects axon to cell body
  33. what are the common types of neurons?
    Image Upload
  34. name the glial cells and their functions.
    • Image Upload
    • 3 main structures:
    • 1. cell body
    • 2. dendrites
    • 3. axon
  35. what is the difference between oligodendrocytes and schwann cells?
    • schwann cells (neurolemmocyte): myelin shealth in PNS (1 cell - 1 axon)
    • oligodendrocytes: myelin shealth in CNS (1 call - multiple axon)
  36. what is the difference between myelinated axon and unmyelinated axon?
    • myelinated axon: conducts impulses faster; the larger the diameter of the axon, the faster the rate of conduction
    • unmyelinated axon: surrounded by a neurolemmocyte but are not wrapped in a myelin sheath
  37. what are the primary brain vesicles?
    • prosencephalon (forebrain)
    • mesencephalon (midbrain)
    • rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
    • spinal cord
  38. what makes up a diencephalon?
    arises from the prosencephalon and eventually forms the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
  39. what makes up the brainstem?
    pons & medulla oblongata
  40. how many layers does the cranial meninges consist of?
    • 3 layers -  from deep (closest to brain) to superficial (farthest away from brain)
    • Pia mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • dura mater
  41. what is the difference between Pia Mater, Arachnoid Mater, and Dura Mater?
    • Pia mater: inner layer of the cranial meninges
    • arachnoid mater: lies external to pia mater
    • dura mater: outer layer; toughest layer
  42. what are the cranial dural septa?
    • Falx cerebri: Projects into longitudinal fissure and separates left and right cerebral hemispheres
    • Tentorium cerebelli: Horizontal fold that separates cerebrum from cerebellum
    • Falx cerebelli: Separates left and right cerebellar hemispheres
    • Diphragma selae: Small septum between pituitary and hypothalamus
  43. what are the brain ventricles and where are they located?
    • lateral ventricle: one in each hemisphere of the cerebrum
    • septum pellucidum: thin layer; separates lateral ventricles
    • third ventricle: located in diencephalon
    • fourth ventricle: between pons and cerebellum
  44. what is the function of CSF?
    • Buoyancy: Brain floats in the CSF
    • Protection: CSF provides liquid cushion
    • Environmental stability: CSF transports nutrients and removes waste from brain
Card Set:
A&P exam 2
2014-10-20 02:59:26

Chapter 11,12,13,14,15
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