Science Chapter 11

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  1. Electric Circuit
    A closed path along which electrons that are powered by an energy source can flow
  2. Voltaic Cell (Cell)
    • A source of energy that generates an electric current by chemical reactions involving two different metals or metal compounds separated by a solution that is a conductor.
    • e.g. AA Battery
  3. Battery
    A connection of two or more cells
  4. Electrode
    • One of two metal terminals in a cell or battery
    • The breakdown of an electrode is one factor that can limit the life of a cell
  5. Electrolyte
    A solution or paste that conducts charge
  6. Dry Cell
    A cell that contains an electrolyte that is a paste
  7. Wet Cell
    A cell that contains a liquid electrolyte
  8. Primary Cell
    • A cell that can be used only once
    • e.g. batteries
  9. Secondary Cell
    • A cell that can be recharged
    • e.g. phones
  10. Fuel Cell
    • A cell that generates electricity through the chemical reactions of fuel which is stored outside the cell
    • Hydrogen fuel cell combines hydrogen that is stored in a tank or cartridge with oxygen from the air
  11. Solar Cell
    • A cell that converts sunlight into electrical energy
    • e.g. calculator
  12. Terminal
    A position on a cell that must be connected to other components to form a circuit.
  13. Switch
    A control device that can complete or break the circuit it is connected to.
  14. Open Circuit
    • A circuit with a gap within it
    • Electrons do not flow through any part in the circuit where there is a gap or break
  15. Electric Current
    • The rate of movement of electric charge
    • Current is due to the flow of electrons
  16. Coulomb (C)
    • The unit of electric charge
    • One coulomb is the quantity of charge that is equal to the charge of 6.25 x 10 to the power of 18 electrons.
  17. Ampere (A)
    • The unit of electric current is the ampere (A)
    • 1 A in a circuit means 1 C of charge passes a given point in a circuit every second
    • Measured using an ammeter
  18. Electrical Resistance
    • A property of a substance that hinders electric current and converts electric energy to other forms of energy
    • Occurs when electrons collide with ions or other electrons in a solid
    • Resistors are devices used in a circuit to decrease the current
    • Metals have a lower resistance then non metals, which is why there used as conductors in a circuit
  19. Resistor
    A device used in an electric circuit to decrease the current through a component by a specific amount.
  20. Load
    A device that transforms electrical energy into heat, motion, sound or light
  21. Potential Difference (Voltage)
    • The difference between the electric potential energy per unit of charge at two points in a circuit
    • The amount of work that is done on each coulomb of charge that moves between terminals of the cell
    • Measured in volts (V) using a voltmeter
  22. Volt
    The unit for potential difference
  23. Circuit Diagram
    A diagram that uses standard symbols to represent the components in a circuit and their connections
  24. Series Circuit
    A circuit where there is only one path for electrons to flow
  25. Parallel Circuit
    A circuit where there is more than one path for electrons to flow
  26. Ohm's Law
    • The ratio of potential difference to current is a constant called resistance
    • V=IR
    • I=V/R
    • R=V/I
  27. Ohm (Ω)
    The unit for resistance
  28. Superconductor
    • A material in which electrons can flow with no resistance
    • e.g. mercury
  29. Non-ohmic
    Does not obey or follow ohm's law
  30. Loads in Series
    • Current: Same at all points
    • Potential Difference: Split up between loads
    • Resistance: More loads - greater resistance
  31. Loads in Parallel
    • Current: Will split up because there is more than one path for electrons
    • Potential Difference: Same down each path, because energy is not lost
    • Resistance: More loads in parallel means less resistance because more paths are more convenient for electrons to flow
Card Set:
Science Chapter 11
2014-10-24 01:58:47

Science Electricity Glossary Terms
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