Music Appreciation

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Music Appreciation
2014-10-14 19:44:29
Harrison Music Appreciation
Mid Term
Show Answers:

  1. Why does history record so much sacred music from
    this period?
    • Just as the cathedral dominated the medieval land scape, it
    • was the center of music
    • Boys received education in school associated with church
  2. Describe the social
    structure of the Middle Ages
    • Early: migration, upheavals, and wars
    • Later until 1450: cultural growth, Romanesque churches and monasteries,
    • gothic cathedrals, universities were founded
    • Late: crusades
  3. What
    is plainchant (Gregorian chant)?
    • Consists of melody set to sacred Latin texts and sung
    • without accompaniment
  4. Describe the properties of plainchant
    • Monophonic texture
    • No accompaniment
    • Rhythm is flexible, little sense of beat
  5. What is an estampie?
    • A medieval dance, is one of the earliest surviving forms of
    • instrumental music
  6. How does it differ from plainchant?
    It is different because it has instruments and no words while plainchant is just voices and no instruments
  7. What is organum?
    Medieval music that consists of Gregorian chant and one or more additional melodic lines
  8. Describe the evolution of organum
    • Between 900-1200 because truly polyphonic     
    • Developed melodic curve of its own
    • Became independent around 1100
  9. Who are Leonin and Perotin and what significant contribution did they make to
    musical history?
    • They were choirmasters of Notredame
    • They introduced measured rhythm for the first time in
    • history
  10. What are the sections of the mass ordinary?
    Kyrie, Gloria, credo, Sanctus, and agnus dei
  11. What does the word “Renaissance” mean?
  12. What cataclysmic event helped usher in the Renaissance?
    • Revival of Greek and roman culture
    • The crusades – many of the crusaders passed through the
    • byzantine empire and came into contact with this Greek and roman knowledge that
    • had been preserved there
  13. How did the social structure change in the Renaissance?
    • Christian society was held to have two aspects, the church and state
    • Christendom – the church started to have power over the
    • state
  14. What is Humanism?
    Intellectual movement focusing on human life and its accomplishments
  15. What is a madrigal?
    Renaissance music; a piece for several solo voices set to a short poem, usually about love
  16. What is word painting?
    Musical representation of specific poetic images
  17. who composed vesta
    thomas weekles
  18. who was the composer trying to impress?
    queen Elizabeth in 1601
  19. vesta is also called?
  20. by what other names is Queen Elizabeth 1 described in the madrigal?
  21. What was the Baroque perspective on rhythm, texture, and dynamics?
    Texture – polyphonic, often shifted from poly to homo as music demanded

    • Rhythm – repeated, unity of mood is conveyed primarily by continuity of rhythm, patterns heard at the beginning of a piece are repeated
    • throughout providing drive and energy

    Dynamics – constant volume, shifts are usually sudden
  22. what is unity of mood?
    the music will usually express one mood throughout the peice
  23. what is terraced dynamic
    sudden alteration between loud and soft
  24. Describe the basso continuo and the figured bass?
    • Combination of two instruments; an accompaniment made up of
    • a bass part with number (figures) which specify the chords to be played above
    • it
  25. What was the role of the musician in court life?
    To provide entertainment to the kings, queens, dukes, etc.
  26. Bradenburg Concerto #5, 1st mvnt. 

    What instrument family do you hear?
    string family and basso continuum (harp)
  27. Bradenburg Concerto #5, 1st mvnt. 

    Major or minor key?
  28. Bradenburg Concerto #5, 1st mvnt. 

    How would you describe the tempo?
    Allegro, moderately fast
  29. Bradenburg Concerto #5, 1st mvnt. 

    Duple or triple meter?
  30. Bradenburg Concerto #5, 1st mvnt. 

    What is the texture?
  31. Instrumental soloists

    What instruments do you hear?
    harp, violin, and flute
  32. Instrumental soloists

    Has the texture changed? How?
  33. Cadenza

    What is wrong with it?
    The purpose is to show of soloists. The problem is they are missing two soloists. Only the harp is showing off
  34. What is a fugue?
    • A polyphonic composition based on one main theme called a subject. Throughout a fugue, different melodic lines (voices) imitate the
    • subject – tonic, dominant, tonic, dominant … cloudy sounding
  35. What is a fugal exposition?
    • Opens with the main theme (subject), which then sounds successively in each voice in imitation; when each voice has entered the
    • exposition is complete
  36. Fugal Devices 

    A different melodic idea that accompanies a fugue subject
  37. Fugal Devices

    The subject is imitated before it is completed, once voice tries to catch another
  38. Fugal Devices 

    the pitches are presented upside down
  39. Fugal Devices 

    The pitches are presented in reverse order and upside down
  40. Opera
    a staged play that is sung
  41. recitative
    Action, moves plot – style of delivery in which the singer is allowed to adopt the rhythms of ordinary speech
  42. Secco recitative, Accompanied recitative
    • Is at one end of the spectrum recitativo accompaniment (orchestra
    • … dry, accompanied by harp)
  43. aria
    • A song for solo voice
    • and orchestra, used to express the emotional state of characters
  44. da capo aria
    Sung by a soloist with the accompaniment of instruments, often a small orchestra
  45. Who is henry purcell?
    • Composer of “young persons guide” and “dido and arenas”
    • English organist, baroque composer of secular and sacred music
  46. What is the plot of Dido and Aeneas?
    • An opera in a
    • prologue and three acts by the English Baroque composer Henry Purcell to a libretto by Nahum Tate recounts the love story of Dido, Queen of Carthage falls in love w/ the Trojan hero Aeneas, and her despair at his abandonment.
  47. What is the ground bass?
    • Musical idea-repeated over (subjected) while others melody above it changes. Easiest to
    • recognize a long phrase is repeated over and over again in the bass part, while
    • the upper parts proceed normally [with variation]
  48. What is meant by the term “affection” in the Baroque period?
    • Songs to make you feel sad, etc; When a soloist in an opera sings a song (an aria) the aria
    • is in a particular mood There were several “affections” or moods: there were
    • arias about revenge, jealousy, anger, love, despair, peaceful happiness etc.
  49. What specific “affection” is used in the ground bass of Purcell’s “When I am laid”
    and what is its meaning?
    Sad, solemn, depressing-leads to her suicide after he leaves.
  50. What was the most common topic for opera plots in the Baroque Period?
  51. What is a libretto? A librettist?
    • Text of opera
    • Writes the text of an opera
  52. What are the Characteristics of Opera?
    Libretto, recitative, aria
  53. What are the voice categories of Opera?
    • Coloratura soprano, lyric tenor, dramatic sopranos, lyric soprano, dramatic tenors, basso
    • buffo, basso profundo,
  54. What is an oratorio and how does it differ from opera?
    • Large-scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra, usually set to narrative
    • text, but w/o acting, scenery or costumes. It is often set to a biblical text not acted like opera
  55. What oratorio is G.F. Handel famous for composing?
    Messiah "Hallelujah Chorus" -written in English
  56. What country did Handel spend most of his life?
  57. what is his country of origin? handel
  58. Why was G.F. Handel nicknamed “The Charming Brute”?
    b/c he is portrayed as a pig, playing the organ, surrounded by quantities of food and wine.