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What eval or assessment tools are used for children with visual impairments?
Considering the occupational performance areas that might be impacted by early visual deficits, tests of general development may be the first choice for assessment of young children since they can give a picture of a child's play, self-care, & personal social abilities,as well as motor abilities. If school aged, more detailed evaluations of school, classroom, & environmental demands on the child will be required. The information can be obtained from interview or teachers, school checklist, self-care checklists, or formal evaluations such as the School Function Assessment (SFA).
What if multiple impairments are present with the visual impairment what eval's should be done?
More extensive evaluation of self-care (especially eating), sensory integrations, & motor functions may need to be completed by the OT for children of all ages.
The OT & OTA decide assessment of the the following.
- *Fine & gross motor development.
- *Development of voluntary movement, including reflex maturation.
- *Self-care or adaptive behavior activities.
- *Sensorimotor development.
- *Play development.
What are the usual deficits with visual impairment?
- *Gross motor
- *Fine Motor
- All are developmentally delayed.
What are the general goals for the visual impaired children?
- *Independence needs to be encouraged.
- *To visually localize, reach and grasp items.
- *To have the child participate in play with siblings.
- *To understand the child's condition & to have realistic expectations.
- *Independent in feeding.
- *Decrease self-stimulation behaviors.
- *Independently walk.
- *Decrease stereotypical behaviors such as eye poking waving his hands in front of his face, & rocking.
- *Stimulate use of remaining vision.
- *Encourage typical play development & interactions in sitting, kneeling & standing.
- *Increase tolerance for vestibular stimulation.
*Enhance age-appropriate gross & fine motor development.
What is an example of 1 goal and 2 objectives for visual impairment?
Goal 1 - Sandy will initiate a play activity by reaching for a toy given a sound or light cue, with minimal prompting, 2 out of 4 trials to increase independence with social play.
Objective 1 - Sandy will visually attend to toys for 45 seconds when a light is shone on them.
Objective 2 - Sandy will demonstrate a preference for social interaction by belly crawling toward a sibling playing nearby, with moderate verbal cues, to increase proximity to her, to increase independence in play.
What are the Evidence-Based Treatment Strategies for the visual impaired?
- Promote self-feeding
- Encourage exploratory play in family context
- Promote optimal use of vision & fine motor development.
- Family collaboration/education.
- Improve sensory processing.