- 32 bit IP address is organized into four groups of eight bits each
- 255.255.255.255 which in binary is 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111111
RAM (Random Access Memory)
- Memory modules on the motherboard containing microchips
- is temporary storage for data and instructions as they are being processed by the CPU.
- Information in RAM is lost when the PC is turned off.
- The BIOS programs are stored on a special ROM (read-only memory) chip.
- The motherboard BIOS serves three purposes:
- System BIOS manages essential devices
(such as the keyboard, mouse, hard drive,
and monitor) before the OS is launched.
- Startup BIOS is used to start the computer.
- BIOS setup or CMOS setup is used to
change the motherboard configuration or
- Two standards the faster serial ATA (SATA) standard and the slower and older parallel ATA (PATA) standard.
- CD (compact disc) drives use the CDFS (Compact Disc File System)or the UDF (Universal Disk Format) file system. Has 700 mb space
- DVD (digital versatile disc or digital video disc) drives. DVD single-side, single layer has 4.7 GB. DVD single-side, dual layer has 8.5 GB. DVD double-side, single layer has 9.4 GB. DVD double-side, dual layer has 15.9 GB.
- Blu-ray Disc (BD) drives use the newer UDF file system. BD double-side, single layer 25 GB. BD double-side, dual layer 50 GB.
A set of rules and standards that two entities use for communication.
Network Interface Card (NIC)
- An expansion card that plugs into a computer’s motherboard and provides a port on the back of the card to connect a computer to a network. Also called a network adapter.
- The slot a NIC uses. For expansion cards, consider the slot (PCI Express or PCI) the network adapter card uses.
- The standards that describe the size, shape, screw hole positions,and major features of these interconnected components.
- The two form factors used by most desktop and tower computer cases and power supplies are the ATX and mini-ATX form factors.
ATX Form Factors
ATX (Advanced Technology Extended) is the most commonly used form factor today.
The extra 4 pins on the 24-pin P1 connector provide +12 volts, +5 volts, and+3.3 volts pins. Motherboards that support PCI Express and have the 24-pin P1connector are sometimes called Enhanced ATX boards.
Micro ATX Form Factor
- The microATX (MATX) form factor is a major variation of ATX and addresses some technologies that have emerged since the original development of ATX.
- MicroATX reduces the total cost of a system by reducing the number of expansion slots on the motherboard,reducing the power supplied to the board, and allowing for a smaller case size.
- A microATX power supply uses a 24-pin P1 connector and is not likely to have as many extra wires and connectors as those on an ATX power supply.
- Up to 12.8" wide
- The BTX boards can have up to seven expansion slots, are designed for improved airflow, and can use an ATX power supply.
Types of P1 Connectors
- 20-pin P1 connect is the main motherboard power connector used in the early ATX systems
- 24-pin P1 connector, also called the 20+4 pin connector, is the main motherboard power connector used today
- 20+4 pin P1 connector with four pins removed so the connector can fit into a 20-pin P1 motherboard connector
AC (Alternating Current) and DC (Direct Current)
- Alternating current (AC) goes back and forth, or oscillates, rather than traveling in only one direction.
- Direct current (DC) travels in only one direction and is the type of current that most electronic devices require, including computers
- A rectifier is a device that converts AC to DC,and an inverter is a device that converts DC to AC
- A transformer is a device that changes the ratio of voltage to current.
- The power supply used in computers is both a rectifier and a transformer.
- A surge suppressor (see Figure 1-29) is rated in joules—the higher the better. The rating determines how much work it can expend before it can no longer protect the circuit from a power surge.
A measure of work or energy. One joule (pronounced “jewel”) is thework required to push an electricalcurrent of one amp through a resistanceof one ohm
- This specifies what spike voltage will cause the protective components inside a surge protector to divert unwanted energy from the protected line.
- A lower clamping voltage indicates better protection, but can sometimes result in a shorter life expectancy for the overall protective system.
Power conditioners/Line Conditioners
A power conditioner (also known as a line conditioner or power line conditioner) is a device intended to improve the quality of the power that is delivered to electrical load equipment.
- Voltage swell, which is a momentary increase in voltage, happens when a heavy load turns off in a power system
- spikes are fast, short duration electrical transients in voltage (voltage spikes)
- temporary voltage reductions
- An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a device that raises the voltage when it drops during brownouts or sags (temporary voltage reductions).
UPS (uninterruptible power supply)
An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a device that raises the voltage when it drops during brownouts or sags (temporary voltage reductions).
Types of ribbon cables
- The older cable has 40 pins and 40 wires.
- The 80-conductor IDE cable has 40 pins and 80 wires. Forty wires are used for communication and data, and an additional 40 ground wires reduce crosstalk on the cable.
Pin 1 (Ribbon Cable)
- This edge color marks this side of the cable as pin 1.
- Red line down left side indicates pin 1
Types of Processor sockets
- PGA (pin grid array)
- LGA (Land grid array)
- SPGA (Staggered pin grid array)
- FCLGA (flip-chip land grid array) or FCPGA (flip chip pin grid array)
- BGA (Ball grid array)
- ZIF socket (Zero insertion force)
PGA (Pin grid array)
- socket has holes aligned in uniform rows around the socket to receive the pins on the bottom of the processor.
LGA (Land grid array)
- socket has blunt protruding pins on the socket that connect with lands or pads on the bottom of the processor.
- The first LGA socket was the LGA775 socket. It has 775 pins and is shown with the socket lever and top open
SPGA (Staggered pin grid array)
socket has pins staggered over the socket to squeeze more pins into a small space
ZIF (Zero insertion force)
socket that uses a small lever to apply even force when you install the processor into the socket.
- is a set of chips on the motherboard that works closely with the processor to collectively control the memory, buses on the motherboard, and some peripherals
- north bridge and south bridge
- The fast end of the hub
- contains the graphics and memory controller, and connects directly to the processor by way of a 64-bit bus, called the Front Side Bus (FSB), system bus, or host bus.
- The slower end of the hub
- contains the I/O controller hub (ICH). All I/O (input/output) devices, except video, connect to the hub by using the slower South Bridge