Midterm: biology

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Midterm: biology
2014-10-15 08:44:22
Midterm biology
Cards for midterm exam
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  1. A Scientist performs a controlled experiment.
    This means that two experiments are conducted, one differing from the other by only a single variable
  2. A consumer eating a producer represents
    a transfer of chemical nutrients and energy
  3. Which of the following statements regarding
    cellular activity is false?
    New cells are derived from cellular components like organelles.
  4. As the environment changes,
    natural selection adapts population to their environment.
  5. To be scientifically valid, a hypothesis must be
    testable and falsifiable
  6. A theory is
    an explanation of an idea that is broad inscope with multiple lines of evidence
  7. Vitamin C experiment where a group was given 3000 mg of vitamin C and the other a placebo. To have confidence that the results of the experiment were valid, you’d also want to
    if the volunteers had colds at thestart of the experiment
  8. An antibiotic kills 99.9% of a bacterial
    population. You would expect the next generation of bacteria to
    be more resistant to that antibiotic.
  9. A hypothesis
    is a tentative answer to some questions.
  10. Your instructor asked you to look into a
    microscope to see a prokaryotic cell.
    You will be looking for a cell that has a membrane.
  11. Which of the following best
    represents an example of technology?
    Testing for genetic diseases.
  12. The role of a control in an experiment is
    to provide a basis for comparison to the experimental group.
  13. In the vitamin C experiment
    where a group was given 3000 mg of vitamin C and the other a placebo. Which was
    the experimental group?
    Group A only(the one given the vitamin C)
  14. Which of the following observations would
    provide the strongest evidence that the many different plants we call orchids are actually related to one another?
    They all have the same common ancestor.
  15. The ultimate source of energy flowing into
    nearly all ecosystems is
  16. The following statement is false:
    All organisms have the ability to maintain a constant internal temperature.
  17. If you eat a hamburger you are basically eating
    ground up beef muscle. What levels of organization are represented in this
    ground-beef muscle?
    Organelle, cell, and tissue.
  18. Which of the following statements regarding
    matter is false?
    Matter can be created and destroyed.
  19. A buffer donates H+ ions when conditions become too _____ and accepts H+ ions when
    conditions become too _____.
  20. In the equation 2 H2 + O2 -> 2 H2O,
    only H2O is a compound.
  21. What is the atomic mass of an atom that has 6
    protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons?
  22. Hydrogen bonds are
    weak bonds that are not strong enough to hold atoms together to form molecules but are strong enough to form bonds within and around large compounds.
  23. A radioactive isotope is an isotope that
  24. _____is a trace element in the body.
  25. Table salt is formed when
    sodium donates its single outer electron to chlorine.
  26. A solution with a PH of 7 is
  27. Household ammonia has a PH of 12, household
    bleach has a PH of 13.
    The ammonia has10 times as many H+ ions as the bleach.
  28. is a trace element that can be added to water to prevent tooth decay.
  29. A covalent bond
    forms when two atoms share electrons
  30. The four most common elements in living
    organisms are
    C,H, O, N
  31. A hydrogen atom has one electron. How many
    covalent bonds can hydrogen form?
    One covalent bond.
  32. Compared to a solution of PH 3, a solution of PH
    1 is
    100 times more acidic.
  33. When full, the innermost electron shell of argon
    contains_____ and the
    outermost contains _____.
    2 electrons....8
  34. Which particles increase by one as we move from left to right in the periodic table?
    Electrons and protons
  35. ·      
    Which of the following statements about
    ecosystems is false? Bacteria and Fungi recycle energy
    within an ecosystem.
  36. ·      
    Which of the following statements about the
    domain bacteria is true? All bacteria lack a nucleus.

  37. A diabetic, who does not utilize insulinproperly, will metabolize fats instead of glucose. A condition called diabeticketoacidosis is a common result of excessive fat metabolism, causing blood PHvalues of 7.1 or less (normal ranges 7.35-7.45). What has happened to the bloodPH and why?
    The PH is below normal(acidic) because the buffering capacity was exceeded
  38. Based on your understanding of radioactive isotopes and Alzheirmer’s disease, what might occur with the use of radioactive isotopes
    when diagnosing this brain disease?
    It could cause more cellular damage, worsening the condition.
  39. In pure water you would expect to find:
    the same amount of H+ (hydrogen)  and OH- (hydroxide) ions.
  40. Photosynthesis requires many steps to make glucose.  As a result of synthesis process
    all the carbons from the 6 carbon dioxide atoms are found in glucose.
  41. Which of the following substances is a lipid?
  42. Sucrose is formed
    from two monosaccharides through dehydration synthesis
  43. Which of the following statements about dehydration synthesis is false? Animal Digestive systems utilize this process to break down food
  44. ·      
    You are reading a journal of an amateur
    naturalist who visited the Sonoran desert in the last century. Which of his
    description of desert plants would you question? A common annual that produces one
    large seed per plant
  45. Which of the following statements about biomes,the major terrestrial ecosystems covering the Earth is true? Fireis very important in some biomes·
  46. High fructose syrup is composed primarily of apolysaccharide called:
  47. ·      
    You notice that over the past month, many
    students on campus have started to wear a new style of sweatshirt. You think to
    yourself that perhaps the bookstore has started to sell them. This prediction
    is an example of a hypothesis.
  48. The temperature of evaporation is much higherfor water than for alcohol. Without knowing more about the chemistry ofalcohol, which of the following is the most logical chemical explanation forthis phenomenon? Alcohol has a higher surface tension than water. This means that alcohol molecules caneasily break away from other alcohol molecules and evaporate at a lowertemperature.
  49. Which of the following statements about evolution is true?
    Evolution is a passive process
  50. ·      
    Organisms that are prokaryotes are in the
    domains bacteria and archae.
  51. What is the difference between tissue and an organ system? An organ system includes tissues.
  52. Members of the kingdom Animalia can obtain their food by eating other organisms.
  53. Members of the kingdom fungi include the mushrooms and yeasts, and decompose there mains of dead organisms and absorb nutrients from the leftovers.
  54. A scientist examining a group of cells under the microscope notices the presence of nuclei within these cells. Chemical testsreveal that each cell is surrounded by a wall composed of cellulose. These cells must come from an organism thatis a member of the kingdom plantae
  55. Cell walls are a feature common to prokaryotes, fungi, and plants.
  56. Fungiis an organism within the domain Eukarya.
  57. All organisms within the kingdom plantae are photosynthetic and contain cells that are surrounded by cell walls with cellulose.
  58. Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of an atom.
  59. What is the fundamental difference between covalent and ionic bonding?
    In a covalent bond, the partners share a pair of electrons, in an ionic bond, one partner accepts electrons from the other.
  60. ·      
    Water’s surface tension and heat storage
    capacity is accounted for by its hydrogen
  61. Which of the following is another term used for atomic mass? Dalton.
  62. This statement is false: The hydrogen bonds in ice are less stable than the hydrogen bonds in liquid water.·
  63. In a water molecule, hydrogen and oxygen are held together by a polar covalent bond.
  64. Which of the following statements best describes a compound?
    A compound contains two or more different elements in a fixed ratio.
  65. ·      
    In the equation 2 H2 + O2 à 2 H2O, the H2
    molecules are reactants and the H2O
    molecules are products.
  66. What happens to an atom if the electrons in the outer shell are altered? The properties in the atom will change.
  67. A hydroxyl group is characteristic of alcohols.
  68. Oil and water don’t mix because water exhibits polarity and oil does not.
  69. This statement about enzymes is false: they are monomers used to build proteins.
  70. The result of dehydration synthesis can be
    reversed by hydrolysis.
  71. _COOH is a carboxyl group
  72. Structural proteins anchor cell parts·
  73. Fatty acids with double bonds between some of their carbon are said to be unsaturated.
  74. Enzymes
    are proteins
  75. _NH2
    is an amino group.
  76. The molecular formula of most monosaccharides represents a multiple of CH2O·
  77. A diet high in animal products and hydrogenated vegetable margarine may increase the risk of atherosclerosis. This is because most animal fats are saturated and many hydrogenated vegetable margarines contain high levels of trans fats.
  78. Genetic information is encoded in the sequence of nucleotides in DNA
  79. What is the general function of enzymes within a cell?
    To speed up chemical reactions
  80. Amino acids can be distinguished from one
    another by the chemical properties of
    their R groups
  81. The development of atherosclerotic disease can result from a diet high in saturated fats
  82. A major type of lipid found in cell membranes is phospholipids.
  83. Which of the following statements about living systems is false? Living systems arecomposed of two or more cells.·
  84. The following statement is not consistent with Darwin’s theory of natural selection? Individual organisms exhibit genetic change during their life spans to better fit their environment.
  85. ·      
    Which of the following statements regarding
    chemical reactions is false? Some
    chemical reactions create electrons, others destroy them.
  86. You have made a hot drink by dissolving a teaspoon of instant coffee and a teaspoon of hot water. Which of the statementsis true? You’ve just prepared an aqueous solution.·
  87. An effective way to reduce the production of acid precipitation is to whenever possible, walk or ride a bicycle instead of a car.
  88. Radioactive isotopes can be used in conjunction with PET scans to diagnose diseases.
  89. Organic compounds always contain carbon.
  90. ·      
    This statement is false regarding monomers and polymers found in living organisms:
    Monomers are joined together by the
    process of hydrolysis.
  91. The following contain only polysaccharides: cellulose, starch, glycogen.
  92. If you were to add olive oil to your food as part of a diet to lower your risk of atherosclerotic disease, you would use olive oil that is liquid at room temperature.·
  93. Cellulose differs from starch in that most animals can’t break down cellulose,whereas starch is easily digested.
  94. Many names of sugars end in the suffix –ose.
  95. Mad Cow disease serves as example of how interdependent _____
    and ______ are to protein.
  96. The pronghorn antelope and the saiga antelope
    are very similar. Which of the following features would you be surprised to
    find in a saiga antelope? A digestive
    tract that separates nutrients from cellulose and quickly excretes cellulose.
  97. Which of the following environmental factors usually has the greatest direct effect on an organism’s water loss by evaporation? wind·
  98. The test tube is inoculated with 1x10^3 cells of bacterial strain that has a generation time of 30 minutes. The carryingcapacity of the test tube for the strain is 6x10^9 cells. What will thebacterial population be after 90 minutes of culturing? 8 X 10^3·
  99. The primary source of energy for hydrothermal vent communities is oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in the vent water.·
  100. Chaparral vegetation occurs around much of the central valley of central and southern California. This biome is very similar to that found in the
    Mediterranean region