Medical Teminology Chapters 5 and 6

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  1. The 4 Functions of the Digestive System
    Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption, and Elimination
  2. Order of Function- Part One
    First complex food is taken in the mouth is ingested.
  3. Order of Function- Part Two
    • Second, it is digested, or broken down, mechanically or chemically, as it tavels down through the GI tract. Digestive enzymes speed up the chemical reaction and aids
    • the break down of complex nutrients. Complex proteins are digested into amino acids; Complicated sugars are reduced to simple sugars-glucose; Large or lipids molecules are broken down to simpler substances- fatty acids and triglycerides(three part fatty acid and one part glycerol). Digestion occurs in the stomach, mouth, and small intestines.
  4. Order Of Function-Part Three
    digested food passes through the lining of cells or epitheilum of the small intestines and into the bloodstream. Nutrients travel to all the cells of the body. Cells then breaks down nutrients in the presence of oxygen to release energy. Cells also use amino acid nutrients to build up large protein molecules needed for growth and development. In addition, fat molecules are absorbed into lymphatic vessels from the intestine.
  5. Order of Function- Part Four
    The final function is elimination of solid waste materials that cannot be absorbed into the bloodstream. The large intestine concertrates these solid waste called feces and the waste finally passes through the anus.
  6. Order of the Oral Cavity
    • 1- Cheeks
    • 2- Lips
    • 3- Hard Palate
    • 4- Soft PalateĀ 
    • * Rugae are the irregular ridges in the mucous membrane covering the anterior portion of the hard palate.
    • 5- Uvula
    • 6- Tongue
    • 7- Tonsils
    • 8- Gums
    • 9- Teeth
  7. Cheeks
    form the walls of oval-shaped oral cavity
  8. Lips
    surround the opening to the cavity
  9. Hard Palate
    forms the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth, and the mucous soft palate.
  10. Soft Palate
    it lies posterior to the hard palate
  11. Uvula
    a small soft tissue projection, hangs from the soft palate. It aids production of sounds and speech.
  12. Tongue
    Extends across the floor of the oral cavity and muscles attach it to the lower jawbone. It moves food around during mastication and deglutition(swallowing). Papillae, small raised areas on the tongue, contains taste buds that are sensitive to the chemical nature of foods and allows discrimination of different taste as food moves across the tongue.
  13. Tonsils
    masses of lymphatic tissue located in the depressions of the mucous membranes, lie onto both sides of the oropharynx(part of the throat near the mouth.) They are filters to protect the body from the invasion of microorganisms and produce lymphocytes, disease-fighting white blood cells.
  14. Gums
    Fleshy tissue surrounding the sockets of the teeth
  15. Order of Anatomy in Teeth
    • 1- Crown
    • 2- Root
    • 3- Enamel
    • 4- Dentin
    • 5- Pulp
  16. Crown
    above the gum line
  17. Root
    lies within the bony tooth socket
  18. Enamel
    Protect the tooth; it is a dense, hard, white substance- the hardest substance in the body.
  19. Dentin
    The main substance of the tooth, lie beneath the enamel and extends throughout the crown. It is yellow and composed of bony tissue that is softer than enamel.
  20. * Cementum
    covers, protects, and supports the dentin in the root.
  21. * Periodontal Membrane
    surrounds the cementum and hold the tooth in place in the tooth socket.
  22. Pulp
    lies underneath the dentin. This fills the center of the tooth. Blood vessels, nerve endings, connective tissue, and lymphatic vessels are within the pulp canal also called the root canal.
  23. Three Pairs of Salivary glands
    • 1- Parotid gland
    • 2- Submandibular gland
    • 3- Sublingual gland
  24. Salivary Glands
    surround and empty into the oral cavity. The exocrine glands produce saliva, which lubricates the mouth.
  25. Saliva
    It contains important digestive enzymes as well as healing growth factos such as cytokines. It is released from a parotid gland, submandibular gland and sublingual gland.
  26. Order of Food Intake
    • 1- esophagus
    • 2- Stomach
    • 3- Duodenum
    • 4- Liver
    • 5- Gallbladder
    • 6- Pancreas
    • 7- Jejunum
    • 8- Ileum
    • 9- Cecum
    • 10- Appendix
    • 11- Ascending Colon
    • 12- Transverse Colon
    • 13- Descending Colon
    • 14- Sigmoid Liver
    • 15- Rectum
    • 16-Anus
  27. Esophagus
    * Peristalsis
    * Bolus
    • a 9 to 10 inch muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach.
    • * the involuntary, progressive, hythmic contradiction of muscles in the wall of the esophagus propelling a bolus(mass of food) down toward the stomach
  28. Stomach
    • has three parts:
    • 1) fundus(upper portion)
    • 2) body (middle section)
    • 3) antrum (lower portion)
    • There are two types of sphincters in the stomach
    • 1) lower esophageal sphincter: relaxes and contracts to move food from the esophagus into the stomach.
    • 2)Pyloric Sphincter: allows food to leave the stomach when it is ready.
  29. Duodenum
    Only a foot long and is located in small intestine in the the first section. It recieves food from the stomach as well as bile from the liver and gallbladder as well as pancreatic juices from the pancreas.
  30. Jejeunum
    Is about 8ft long and is the second portion of the small intestine. It also connects with the third section.
  31. Ileum
    The third section of the small intestines; about 11ft long and it attaches to the first part of the large intestine.
  32. Cecum
    a pouch on the right side that connects to the ileum at the sphincter.
  33. an/o
  34. append/o and appendic/o
  35. bucc/o
  36. cec/o
  37. celi/o
    belly, abdomen
  38. cheil/o, labi/o
  39. cholecyst/o
  40. choledoch/o
    common bile duct
  41. col/o and colon/o
  42. dent/i and odont/o
  43. duoden/o
  44. enter/o
    intestines, usually the small intestines
  45. esophag/o
  46. faci/o
  47. gastr/o
  48. gingiv/o
  49. gloss/o and lingu/o
  50. hepat/o
  51. ile/o
  52. jejun/o
    • Jejunum
    • * choledochojejunostomy is an anastomosis
  53. lapar/o
  54. mandibul/o
    lower jaw, mandible
  55. or/o and stomat/o
  56. palat/o
  57. pancreat/o
  58. peritone/o
  59. pharyng/o
    • throat
    • * palatopharyngoplasty is used to treat cases of snoring or sleep apnea caused by obstructions in the throat or nose
  60. proct/o
    anus and rectum
  61. pylor/o
    pyloric sphincter
  62. rect/o
  63. sialaden/o
    salivary gland
  64. sigmoid/o
    sigmoid colon
  65. uvul/o
  66. amyl/o
  67. bil/i and chol/e
    gall, bile
  68. bilirubin/o
    bilirubin (bile pigment)
  69. chlorhydr/o
    hydrochloric acid
  70. gluc/o and glyc/o
  71. glucogen/o
    glycogen, animal starch
  72. lip/o
    fat, lipid
  73. lith/o
  74. prote/o
  75. py/o
  76. sial/o
  77. steat/o
  78. -ase
  79. -chezia
    defecation, elimination of waste
  80. -iasis
    abnormal condition
  81. -prandial
  82. anorexia
    lack of appetite
  83. ascites
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
  84. borborygmus
    rumbling of fluid in the abdomen
  85. constipation
    difficult passing feces
  86. dysphagia
    difficulty swallowing
  87. eruction
  88. hematochezia
    passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum
  89. jaundice
    yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyescaused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood(hyperbilirubinemia)
  90. melena
    black, terry stools; feces containg digested blood
  91. steatorrhea
    fat in the feces; frothy foul smelling fecal matter
  92. aphthous stomatitis
    inflamation of the mouth with small,painful ulcers
  93. dental caries
    tooth decay
  94. herpetic stomatitis
    inflamation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpesvirus
  95. oral leukoplakia
    white patches on the mucousa of the mouth
  96. periodontal disease
    inflammation and degeneration of gums,teeth, and surrounding bone
  97. achalasia
    failure of the lower esophagus sphincter muscle to relax
  98. esophageal varies
    swollen varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus
  99. gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach
  100. Hernia
    Protrusion of an organ or part through the tissues and muscles normally containing it
  101. Peptic ulcer
    open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum
  102. Anal fistula
    abnormal tube like passageway near the anus
  103. colonic polyps
    benign growth protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon.
  104. crohn's disease
    chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract
  105. divertivulosis
    abnormal outpounching in the intestinal wall of the colon
  106. dysentery
    painful, inflamed intestines comoonly caused by bacterial infection
  107. hemorhoids
    swollen twisted varicose vains in the rectal region
  108. ileus
    loss of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines
  109. inflammatory bowel disease
    inflammation of the colon and small intestines.
  110. intussusception
    telescoping of the intestines
  111. irritable bowel syndrome
    group of GI symptoms (abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation) but without abnormalities in the intestines
  112. ulcerative colitis
    chronic inflammation of the colon with the presence of ulcers
  113. volvulus
    twisting of the intestine on itself
  114. cholelithiasis
    gallstones in the gallbladder
  115. viral hepatitis
    inflammation of the the liver caused by a virus
  116. -ectasis and -ectasia
    dilation, widening
  117. -emesis
  118. -pepsia
  119. -phagia
  120. -plasty
    surgical repair
  121. -ptysia
  122. -rrhage,-rrhagia
    bursting forth (of blood)
  123. -rrhaphy
  124. -rrhea
  125. -spasm
    involuntary contration of muscles
  126. -stasis
  127. -stenosis
    narrowing, tightening
  128. -trexia
  129. amylase and lipase tests
    tests for the levels of amylase and lipase in the blood
  130. liver function tests (LFTs)
    tests for the presence of enzymes and bilirubin in the blood
  131. stool culture
    test for microorganisms present in feces
  132. stool guaiac test or Hemoccult test
    test to detect occult (hidden) blood in feces
  133. Lower gastrointestinal series (barium enema)
    x-ray images of colon and rectum obtained after the injection of barium into the rectum
  134. upper gastrointestinal serioes
    x ray images of the esophagus, stomach and small intestine obtained after adminstering barium in the mouth
  135. cholangiography
    x-ray exam of the billary system performed after injection of contrast into the bile ducts
  136. computed tomography(CT)
    A series of xrays images are taken in multple views (especially cross section)
  137. abdominal ultrasonography
    sound waves beamed into the abdomen produce an image of abdominal viscera
  138. endoscopic ultrasongraphy
    use of an endoscope combined with ultrasound to examine the organs of the GI tract
  139. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Magnetic waves produce images of organs and tissues in all their planes of the body
  140. HIDA scan
    radioactive imaging procedure that tracks the production and flow of bile strain from the liver and gallbladder to the intestines
  141. Gastric Bypass; Bariatic Surgery
    reducing the size of the stomach and diverting food to the jejunum
  142. Gastrointestinal endoscopy
    Visual exam of the GI tract using an endoscope
  143. Laparoscopy
    Visual (endoscopic) exam of abdomen with a lararoscope inserted through small incisions in the abdomen
  144. Liver biopsy
    Removal of liver tissue for microscopic exam
  145. nasogastric intubation
    Insertation of tube in the nose into the stomach
  146. paracentesis
    Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the stomach
Card Set:
Medical Teminology Chapters 5 and 6
2014-10-15 16:46:44
Medical Terminology

Chapter 5- digestive system
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