EX PHYS terms

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EX PHYS terms
2014-10-15 15:28:49


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  1. metabolism
    • is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells
    • of living organisms. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms
    • to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their
    • environments.
  2. catabolism
    is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units to release energy.
  3. anabolism
    is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units. These reactions require energy.
  4. bioenergetics
    -The science that studies how energy is converted in living things.
  5. 1st & 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics
    • Bioenergetics is based on two very important laws:
    • 1. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be changed from one form to another.
    • 2. Energy transfer will always proceed in the direction of increased entropy
  6. calorie
    the approximate amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius at sea level.
  7. kcal
    The large calorie is thus equal to 1000 small calories or one kilocalorie
  8. coupled reaction
    free energy from one reaction can drive another reaction. 
  9. enzyme
    • Enzymes are protein molecules that function to increase the rates of chemical reactions.  On the surface of an enzyme are specific binding sites for substrates, and depending upon the enzyme, other binding
    • sites exist for molecules that either decrease or increase enzyme activity.  Enzymes do not alter the free energy change of chemical reactions.

    The factors that can alter enzyme activity are cofactors, temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, the type of isozyme, inhibitors, and activators.
  10. allosteric enzymes
    Enzymes that can be activated and inhibited
  11. exergonic
    • "releasing energy in the form of work".
    • An exergonic process is one in which there is a positive flow of energy from the system to the surroundings
    • -breakdown of glucose
  12. Endergonic
    • "absorbing energy in the form of work."
    • wherein the system absorbs energy from the surroundings.
  13. coenzyme
    derived from vitamins and from required organic nutrients in small amounts. A coenzyme that is tightly or even covalently bound is termed a prosthetic group.
  14. ATP
    • -Adenosine triphosphate
    • -Transports Chermical Energy within cells for metabolism
    • -a large molecule that contains three phosphate (PO3-) groups, adenine, and ribose
  15. ATP formation/ breakdown
    • formation: ADP + Pi -> ATP
    • Breakdown: ATP --ATPasde-->ADP + Pi + energy
  16. ADP
    • adenosine diphosphate
    • an important organic compound in metabolism
  17. creatine phosphate
    • -Most rapid means to regenerate ATP
    • -As ATP is used, CP reforms more ATP from the ADP
    • -a phosphorylated creatine molecule that serves as a rapidly mobilizable reserve of high-energy phosphates in skeletal muscle and the brain.
    • -catalyzed by creatine kinase
  18. Creatine kinase
    catalyses the conversion of creatine and consumes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to create creatine phosphate
  19. anaerobic metabolism
    creation of energy through the combustion of carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen.
  20. glycolysis
    -> pyruvate, ATP, NADH
  21. lactic acid
    it can lose a proton from the carboxyl group, producing the lactate ion
  22. lactate
    • glucose is broken down and oxidized to pyruvate, and lactate is produced from the pyruvate faster than the tissues can remove it, so lactate concentration begins to rise.
    • Pyruvate can be reduced to lactate by the enzyme lactate dehydrogetiase (LDH)
  23. Lactate and muscle fatigue?
    Lactate does not directly contribute to muscle fatigue. accompanying acidosis
  24. NAD-NADH
    • NAD participates in many redox reactions in cells, including those in glycolysis and most of the reactions in the citric acid cycle of cellular respiration.
    • Lactate Dehydrogenase use NAD to accelerate the reactions they catalyze.
    • Substrate loses H+ to NAD. NAD is reduced to NADH, yields "product"
  25. FAD-FADH2
    FAD is a redox cofactor.