Psychology Exam 3

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Sypes
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285920
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Psychology Exam 3
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2014-11-03 16:39:20
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Introduction Psychology
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Psychology Exam 3- Introduction to Psychology
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  1. Focuses on mental processes
    Cognitive psychology
  2. Stage of memory
    • Encoding
    • Storage
    • Retrieval/remembering
  3. Modified in some meaningful way
    Encoding
  4. Finding and using the information stored in your memory
    Retrieval
  5. Three component processing model of memory
    • Sensory memory
    • Short-term memory
    • Long-term memory
  6. Input information/information stays unencoded (unconscious)
    Holds a large amount of information but not for very long
    Sensory register
  7. Focusing on a particular stimulus
    They are encoded
    Attention
  8. Temporary holding cell where information is processed
    Does most of the work
    • Work memory
    • (short-term)
    • 7 memories +- 2
  9. Information is stored for longer periods of time
    Knowledge is interconnected
    Long-term memory
  10. How can you improve your memory
    • Mnemonics- in all types (music, name, expression, rhyme) meaning is created
    • Chunking
    • Create meaning!
  11. More likely to retrieve information is same environment where it was encoded
    Encoding specificity principle
  12. More likely to retrieve information when in same physiological state when encoding
    State dependent learning
  13. We are more likely to remember information congruent with our mood
    Mood- congruence effect
  14. Types of long-term memories
    • Explicit (declarative)- with conscious recall
    • Implicit (nondeclarative)- without conscious recall
  15. Explicit processes in
    Hippocampus- facts, general knowledge, personally experienced events
  16. Implicit processes by other brain areas, including
    Cerebellum- skills, motor & cognitive, classical conditioning
  17. Two- track processing after encoding
    • Automatic- (where you ate dinner yesterday)
    • Effortful- (this chapter's concepts)
  18. Two types of declarative knowledge
    • Semantic- general world knowledge
    • Episodic- specific life events
  19. Knowledge that relates to the nature of how things are, were, or will be
    Declarative memory/knowledge
  20. Forgetting, reasons why we forget
    Encoding failure
  21. The physical changes in the brain as a memory forms
    Memory trace
  22. We can sometimes fail to retrieve a memory because we don't have enough information to access the pathway to it
    Retrieval failure
  23. Every time we replay a memory, we replace the original with a slightly modified version
    Memory construction
  24. Intelligence is the ability to
    • Learn from experience
    • Solve problems
    • Use knowledge to adapt to new situations
  25. The definition of intelligence can very depending on
    • Context
    • Culture
  26. Believed we have one general intelligence (g) at the heart of all intelligent behavior
    Charles Spearman
  27. Some measured aptitude
    The ability to learn
  28. Some measured achievement
    What people have already learned
  29. Is the most widely used intelligent test contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtest
    Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
  30. Mental similarities between adopted children and their adopted families decrease with
    Age
  31. Similarities with biological parents increase as children gain
    Life experience
  32. What percent of our intelligence is heritable and the rest is our genes shape the experiences that shape us
    50%
  33. Females excel at verbal fluency, are better spellers and have better memory for facts
    Verbal memory
  34. Females are better at locating objects and at associations with pictures and sensory information
    Nonverbal memory
  35. Females are better at detecting emotion and intent from expression
    Emotion-detecting
  36. Males tend to be better, but only in cultures that associate being male with science and math
    Math aptitude
  37. Fear that performance will support stereotype
    Stereotype threat
  38. Telling people they need help might hurt their performance
    Danger stereotype threat
  39. Intelligence scores do not portray a whole person
    The bigger picture
  40. The study of how we change- physically, cognitively, and socially throughout the life span
    Developmental psychology
  41. Conception to 2 weeks, divides into 100 cells in the first week, when cells start to differentiate
    Zygote
  42. 2 weeks through 8 weeks, attaches to the uterine wall
    Embryo
  43. 9 weeks to birth, internal organs start develop
    Fetus
  44. Develop from a single fertilized egg
    Identical twins
  45. Develop from a separate fertilized eggs
    Fraternal twins
  46. Examples: heavy drinking pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), characterized by physical abnormalities and lifelong mental impairment
    Teratogens
  47. Infants are born with reflexes- unlearned, automatic responses to a sensory stimulus such as
    • Responding to faces
    • Crying for food
    • Rooting reflex
    • Sucking
  48. A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
    Temperament
  49. Identical twins have more similar personalities (including temperament) than fraternal twins
    Rooting in biology
  50. The biological growth processes leading to orderly changes in behavior, independent of experience
    Maturation
  51. Example: the crawling infant matures into a walking toddler, no matter what nurture is provided
    Maturation
  52. Most neurons form in the womb, immature wiring (networks form after birth), frontal lobes (seat of reasoning and rational planning; most rapid growth during ages 3-6)
    Brain development
  53. Unused neural pathways gets shut down, connections that get used become strengthened
    Neural pruning
  54. Exposure to some certain stimuli or experience is required during this time for proper development
    Critical period for some skills
  55. Can recognize speech sounds and enter babbling stage, uttering various sounds
    At 4 months
  56. Babbling sounds more like parents' language (language specific phonemes)
    Around 10 months
  57. Enter one-word stage, speaks primarily in single words
    Around 1 year
  58. Enter two-word stage, which involves so-called telegraphic speech
    By age 2
  59. Two types of talk
    • Self talk
    • Inner talk
  60. Level of actual development, level of potential development and zone of proximal development (ZPD)
    Le Vygotsky: Learning from others
  61. Level of difficulty of the task increases so does the level of independent performance changes to the level of maximally assisted performance
    ZPD- zone of proximal development
  62. Knowledge is constructed by the individual, knowledge is organized into schemas, people go through developmental stage of learning
    Basic assumptions of Piagetian theory of learning

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