human genetics exam 2 part 2

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Anonymous
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285922
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human genetics exam 2 part 2
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2014-10-15 16:43:48
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human genetics 303 exam 2 part 2
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  1. DNA strucure
    double helix composed of bases adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine and composed of the sugar deoxyribose
  2. DNA's nucleotide chains
    The two nucleotide chains have opposing orientation called antiparallelism
  3. DNA replication
    the helicase brakes the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs while binding proteins stabilize the separate strands
  4. DNA and binding new nucleotides
    Primase adds a primer for the DNA polymerase to bind new nucleotides to form the new strand
  5. DNA's final step
    the Ligase joins the akazaki fragments and seals other gaps
  6. RNA structure
    a single strand composed of the sugar ribose and has uracil instead of thymine
  7. mRNA (messenger RNA)
    gene for protein; carry the information specifically for a particular protein composed of 3 basic codons that specify for an amino acid
  8. mRNA composed of?
    composed of introns, which are removed, and exons, which have important aspects of the RNA
  9. rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
    molecules range from 100-3,000 nucleotides long and associate with certain proteins to form a ribosome transfer RNA binds an mRNA codon at one end and a specific amino acid to the other
  10. polypeptides
    strings of amino acids joined with peptide bonds
  11. what happens after protein synthesis
    proteins can fold intricate conformations (shapes). then amino acid sequence then determines the shape of the conformation and how they bond together
  12. level of structures (primary)
    the amino acid chain with polypeptie bonds
  13. level of structures (secondary)
    stabilized by hydrogen bonds when it starts to fold (alpha helix)
  14. level of structures (secondary) structure
    beta-pleated sheets hold the amino acids in the shape of the alpha helix, and motifs are combinations of alpha and beta structure
  15. level of structures (tertiary)
    the 3D conformation of the entire chain (alpha and beta sheets combined)
  16. prion
    protein misfolds and creates a non-functioning protein and destroys brain tissue (leads to mad cow disease)

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