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- the hour of our death: comprehensive social history of western perception of death.
- death is a mysterious monster, we must tame it
- Christianity has beliefs to tame death
- today's world "invisible death" no longer tame (no longer with communal meaning)
what was unique about early 20th century's beliefs about death?
- science and religion combined
- when does soul leave (depend on culture/religious beliefs)
- common belief: on last breath
experiments on people and dog to show dogs don't have souls (weighed people and dogs before and after death)
Where did the phrase God bless you come from?
Pope Gregory during plague (associated with sneezing, belief that your soul leaves you)
1981 what law was put into act?
Uniform Determination of Death Act provide comprehensive and medically sound basis for determining death in all situations.
facing life with a lethal gene
prior to 12th century what was death like?
- went to purgatory where you waited for the second coming of Christ
- heaven achieved by everyone at once (more community based)
- death bed scenes involve communities
what was the 12th century death?
- you are responsible for the actions that you made (individualism)
- go to heaven or hell
Transi (14-16th century)
- increased material taking in this period
- losing everything at death
- anxiety of not making it to heaven (buying indulgences)
- in feudalist state
- customs of skeleton and death is out there it is going to get everyone regardless of societal status
15th century death
- trinity, forces of God and evil both at the death bed
- choices (what goes on in last hours of death det. fate
- books on how to make the right choice
art of dying (book on how to make the right choice at the moment of death)
live your life so your ready to die any moment
18th century death
- rationally and science
- interest in anatomy (dissection of humans)
- sexuality with themes of death (vampires)
19th century death
- bucolic (reuniting with family in heaven)
- people didn't talk about death in Victorian age
- st. auburns cemetery looks like heaven
2oth century death
the sociological of death and dying
- death is punishment for sins, calculated to invoke anxiety, dependence on strong protector
- women and children most vulnerable
- death is staple in evening news
- pornographic death
- as sex becomes pornographic when divorced from its natural human emotion, which is affection, death becomes pornographic when abstracted from its natural human emotion (grief)
what does gorer criticize about media and death?
- focuses on observable action (not subjective perspectives like grief)
- keeps outdoing itself (use sociocultural factors in shaping particular pornographic themes (horror movies when Scopes monkey trial cam about)
- WWII, death used to employ humor to distract from real death
- 1970's man controlling death and attacks on humanity by natural order)
- 1980 terrorism (romanticized death)
what does Gorer label as obscene?
social embarrassment and enjoyed socially, pornographically, produces fantasy and is enjoyed privately
- death into four categories
- -macabre (repulsive figure, decaying person)
- -gentle comforter
- -gay deceiver (sophisticated, lures us on)
- -automaton (human form, like a robot)
when did society become open to discussion on death?
- during 19th century (victorian era explicit sex was pornographic, discussion of sex was not.
- may be result of when person died, body is washed and laid out
what was the contrast between 19th and 20th century?
- bodies removed, taken to funeral home
- death is not talked about
- sexuality was more open to discussion.
terror of death
Terror of death
- heroism from fear of death
- religions were immunity bath from what is lurking (death); pretend not to want what they really want (redemption after death)
- had healthy minded and morbid minded arguments
- -disappearance of death (uses our energy in other creative ways and temporarily ignored)
what was becker's healthy minded argument?
- child with good maternal experiences will not fear death (nurture)
- death used against person to keep him in submission
norman o brown
second innocence could be developed in individual and leave child open to physical living
becker's morbid minded argument?
- fear of death must be present behind our normal functioning but not to the extent that we cannot function
- early man who were most afraid were realistic and passed on gene of realism with high survival rate.
- child lives in inner chaos (wishes not fulfilled as they did when he was little)
- death is worm at the core of man's pretnesions to happiness
- anxiety is always lurking
imagining the downside of immortatlity
- stephen cave
- terror management theory: we use religion b/c they promise a form of immortality
- structural functionalist: structures are there b/c they serve a certain function
Dr. Samuel Johnson
the prospect of death concentrates the mind (fear of death is the main of human activity, activity to overcome death-->deny it
why are music and writing used in death?
by being part of a bigger group, death is not so bad
goddess of dawn, forgot to ask Tithonus to be made immortal young man, so he became old
Struldbrug: born normal, but immortal and just kept aging
1854 determine cholera in the water causing people to get sick, but people preferred to believe that sin and being Irish caused Cholera
AIDs were believed to be Gay related infectious disease
- for antibodies to HIV in donated blood.
- 1984 FDA approved
dismissed the nation's concern over contaminated blood (was director of red cross)
dentist whose patients were infected with HIV including Kimberly Bergalis
Bowers vs. Harwick
US supreme court case 1988 allowed Georgia to keep law making forms of anal/oral intercourse illegal between members of the same sex
lawrence vs. Texas
- case that issue was not whether the Constitution conferred upon homosexuals a right to engage in sodomy, but whether the Constitution conferred liberty interest to all Americans broad enough to allow consenting sex among adults.
- same sex activity is legal in every state
- struck down sodomy law
needle exchange program showed no increase in drug use by giving out clean needles (but afraid of increase in exposure rate)
four factors to reduce the spread of AIDS?
- social structure
- will work only given funding and the will
- can be slow and expensive
- do it through advertisements as done in Thailand
what is the feminism argument with respect to AIDS?
- empower women from getting infected (HIV caused by human slavery)
- need to condemn a man to die who has infected another woman
- but who will bring the paycheck home?
triage argument (AIDS)
- sit back and relax
- ignore countries that don't need help, and those we can do nothing to help, focus on the middle
- does not offer a solution, rather gives up on finding one
social structure and AIDS and Philippe Courgois
- poor communities, ack of good job turn men to self-destructive behaviors
- kids are starving while they get antivirals?
rockstar bono (what did he believe will stop spreading of AIDS?)
giving money away
- 1347-1351 killed 50% of the population (Paris)
- 1/3 of Europe
plague of Justinian
mediterranean (541-542) during Byzantine Empire through rats from china? Armies were wiped out, money was wiped out to pay for armies
- 80% people died in north, central and south america, people were being exposed to European diseases (flu, malaria, yellow fever) that disseminated.
- syphilis went to Europeans
- this was the Colombian Exchange
when plague got to your lungs
- city state of Italy
- while being invaded by Mongolian army, invading army threw bodies over the wall to give people inside plaque
what were the changes that occurred as result of the plague?
- -shift of economical structure: feudalist to capitalist society, obligations of feudal warlords to take care of servants and vice versa.
- however when plague hit, lords left, serfs went to lands down the street b/c of great need for labor
- after the event, people had higher wages and better standards of living.
- clergy got plague, need people to replace them (more people joined for the money got corrupt)
1483-1548 got sick of the corruptions, reformation
theologian who preached many ideas to Martin Luther 1320-1384
mary baker eddy
christian science founder, a new religious movement in the 19th century
- on death and dying 1969
- starteed death education movement
- critique of modern medicine (need to give proper attention to psychological needs)
kubler ross and 5 stages of grief
- bargaining: let me make it to this wedding
- depression/guilt: loss of relationships, family
- acceptance: what is said is said, not a lot of visitors, final rest before long journey, struggle is over
hope is present at all stages
alternative medicine, labeled by the American Cancer society as quack
- visualization: imagine your white cells attacking your cancer cells
- befitting an appropriate death (no better death than the one that you choose)
- what is appropriate for one person is different from another (no stage of acceptance that is appropriate for everyone)
what are attributes of appropriate death?
- awareness (informed about illness)
- acceptance (not in denial, talk about alternatives)
- propriety (it is the right of the patient if they do not wish to be seen by others when they are near death-->preserve self-esteem, they want to be remembered when they were hot
- timeliness (on time death, not too early or late)
what are the critiques for kubler ross?
- fives stages were being used prescriptively rather than descriptively
- -seems to be something wrong with you if you don't go through all the stages
- caretaker see as their responsibility to move patients along the stages (if they die before acceptance, caretaker not doing their job)
- burden on patients
- readers taking it without using flexibility.
- deemphasize individual differences (treating all the same)
- brought own agenda into work (she knew that dying people are source of teaching)
- hive of affect
- stages are coping mechanisms, this process is not linear like 1,2,3 but whole series of feelings there at once and things are coming that are outside the stages (come and go like bees)
kubler ross format of book
- wrote in trade work vs. scientific light
- -although that means no scientific measure (how do you judge people to be in what stage, etc)
- home of peace, built by kubler ross for patients
- created medium for widows to communicate with dead husbands
channel spirits and summon an ethereal entities and started encouraging patients to be in touch with relatives on the other side.
difference between modern dying and premodern dying (pre 1900)
- modern: technology ( and bureaucratization (health regulations, pet policy, visiting hours, paper work, when you eat and drink)
- premodern (religious, death bed scene)
- total institution (patients, soldiers and inmates)
- regimentation (loss of autonomy, privacy, connectedness, turn into fighting machines, inpersonal treatment)
- dependency develops (loss of functionality outside these structures)
- hung around at hospitals
- how can i tell the story of this place, why are people doing what they're doing?
- hospitals tried to save time (families asked to sign autopsy reports before dying is dead)
- empty morgue trays
- close the person's eyes (easier when they are alive, nurses know when they are about to die)
- wrapping bodies for dying or keep them in utility closets
sudnow found that who was less likely to be resuscitated?
old, poor, people of low social work
sudnow found the visiting for people about to die
- termed by David Sudnow
- treating people as if they are dead, but they are still alive
- people die sooner b/c of the tension and expectation
- patient in nursing home (social death)
what is the social construction of death
- comes back to report every 10 minutes to report eh dying process
- -we assume the dying will involve a dying process
- -debora parker oliver (hospital drama to analyze social interactions before death)
- structural functionalist perspectives
- wrote essay on the sick role (freed the person of certain responsibilities)
- change role of dying
where did hospice originate?
- monasteries took in people who were travelers (who were on way to shrine) on their way to pray for their illness
- travelers were taken care off.
- latin for hosting guests or strangers
St. Joseph's hospice
- st Christopher's 1967 got worldwide attention
- control people's pain by mixing concoctions
- volunteers to cook
- support groups or staff
- brought in experts
- making family the unit of analysis
- cost saving way
1974 US approve medicare hospice
without using expensive equipment, less money, however, when feds regulate it new rules
what is the difference of hospice with hospital
- role mixing
- grief counseling
- health aids (social worker to help family fill out forms, etc)
- quality of life not quantity
the american way of life
american way of death
- not to disturb the dead
- high standard of living thus high standard of death
- memory pciture (done with best embalming)
- 1895 effort to enhance name so goes to
- funeral director (professionalization of business)
what is gracious dying
cushion and casket
the funeral transaction
use of guilt to tell people how much to spend
forester memorial park
- try to imagine what heaven is like
- park with Christian focus (different names for different sections)
how to make money from selling caskets?
show them medium priced one, then way cheaper one, then you bring them something that is above medium priced
below the main floor of church
great depression, pay a modest fee, pay annual small fee when you die, they would make a deal with funeral director to give you a flat rate for funeral
storage for cremated remains of death
- father of embalming
- 15th century, drain blood and replace with formaldehyde
what is the tension of opposites
what one thing but bound by another.
- berawan tribe in Be Not Strange
- seoncdary burial (bury once and bury again)
person who die are part of the in group, done with respect.
- Christianity and Islam
- Parsis: put people in tower of silence for vultures to pick on them, don't want to defile environment
- cremation, essence of person still remains when their body is intact.
- dispose in Ganges (woman buried with man)
no cremation, fire used to punish the wicked
cremation in the states
west coast and north
four stages of Berawan tribe according to metcalf
- 1: 2-10 days in tree trunk (prep
- 2: stores in longhouse (soul is homeless as body is rotting)
- 3: bring into long house (prep), clean bones and secretions collected, marks end of wondering period
- 4: moved to final resting place mausoleum (dead passes on)
Hertz believed what in Death Be Not Strange by metcalf?
- secondary burial have certain beliefs about the afterlife.
- body provides model for the fate of the soul