Chapter23 Abdominal

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Chapter23 Abdominal
2014-10-16 20:53:14

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  1. When does visceral pain occur?
    Visceral pain occurs when the organ itself is involved.
  2. What is Parietal pain?
    also called stomach pain is associated with irritation of the peritoneal lining.
  3. Refferred pain?
    is actually visceral pain ( pain from the organ itself) that is felt elsewhere in the body.
  4. What it is Peritonitis? When does it occur?
    It is irritation and inflammation of the peritoneum.

    Occurs when blood, pus, bacteria, or chemical substances leak into the peritoneal.
  5. What are the signs and symptoms of peritonitis?
    Abdominal pain or tenderness 

    Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea

    fever and chill

    lack of appetite (anorexia)

    Positive Markle (heel drop or heel jar ) test
  6. what is appendicitis? What is it ussaly caused by?
    Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix that commonly causes an acute abdomen.

    Usually cause by blockage in the intestines and results in inflammation and irritation.

    If left untreated it can cause the tissue to die and rupture.
  7. What is the signs and symptoms of appendicitis?
    Abdominal pain or cramping located around the umbilicus. Later this pain is usually localized to the right lower quadrant medial to the iliac crest 

    Nausea and vomiting 

    low grade fever and chills

    lack of appitie 

    abdominal guarding 

    Positive markle test
  8. What is pancreatitis? What is causes it?
    Pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas, may cause sever pain in the middle of the upper quadrants. 

    May be triggerd by many things, ingestion of alcohol, gallstones, or infection. 

    Complacations that may result from this are abscesses, sepsis, hemorrhage, tissue death, hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, and organ failure.
  9. Signs and symptoms of pancreatitis?
    The same as the other infections with mild jaundice ( depending on cause) signs of shock i  extreme cases. pain radiation from navel to the back o the shoulders.
  10. What is Cholecystitis?
    • Cholestitis is inflammation of the gallbladder is commonly addociated with the presence of gallstones.
    • More common in women than men, ages 30-50

    may block the opening of the gallbladder to the small intestine. This causes increased pressure in the gallbladder, if left untreated can cuase tissue death, perforation, pancreatitis may occur.
  11. Signs and symptoms of chloecystitis?
    Sudden onset of abdominal pain located from the middle of the upper quadrants RQU ( pain is present more commonly at night and associated with ingestion of fatty foods. Pain may be referred to the right scapula)
  12. What is gastrointestinal bleeding?
    Bleeding that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract can be attruibuted to many causes. Upper gastronintestinal tract bleeds frequently cause by peptic ulcers, gastric erosion and varices.
  13. Common signs and symptoms of GT Bleeding?
    Abdominal pain and tenderness

    Hematemesis ( vomiting blood bright red in color can look like coffe grounds)

    Hematochezia ( bright red blood in stool normally rapid onset)

    Melena ( dark tarry stools containing decomposing blood normally from the upper gastrointestinal system )

    AMS, weakness, or syncope


    signs of shock
  14. What is esophageal varices?
    Esophageal varices are a bulging engorgement or weakening of the blood vessels in the lining of the lower part of the esophagus.

    • Common in heavy alcohol drinkers or patients with liver disease.
    • Cause by and increased pressure in venous blood supply system of the liver. 

    Painless bleeding the digestive tract, can profuse leading to shock.
  15. Signs and symptoms of esophageal varices.
    Large ammount of bright red hematemesis ( vomiting of blood)

    Absence of pain or tenderness in the abdomen

    Rapid pulse 

    Breathing difficulty 

    pale cool clammy skin

    Other signs of shock

  16. What is Gastroenteritits?
    Gastroenteritits is the inflammation of the stomach and small intestines, commonly associated with the presence of abdominopelvic pain
  17. What are the signs and symptoms of gastroenteritits?
    Abdominal pain or cramping 

    Nausea, Vomiting, and diarrhea

    Abdominal tenderness 

    Fever dehydration 

    In sever cases signs and symptoms of shock and hemorrhage may be present
  18. What is an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)?
    Is a weakened ballooned and enlarged area of the wall of the abdominal aorta.

    Can happen at any age is the most leathal of ab pain

    Generally results from atherosclerosis most common in men over the age of 60.
  19. Signs and symptoms of a AAA.
    Gradual onset of lower lumbar, groin, and abdominal pain 

    Rupture associated with sudden onset of severe, constant abdominal pain. May radiate to lower back, flank, or pelvis. May be described as a "tearing" pain.

    Testicular pain in the male patient 

    Possible nausea and vomiting 

    Mottled or spotty abdominal skin

    Pale, cool, clammy, and possibly cyanotic skin in legs from decreased blood and perfusion.

     Absent, Femoral, Pedal pulses

    If the abdomen is soft, a pulseating mass may be felt. if the aneurysm has burst the abdomen will be rigid and tender