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What are the five characteristics of life?
- 1. Cellular Respiration
- 2. Metabolism
- 3. Responsiveness
- 4. Growth and Development
- 5. Reproduction
What are the simplest organisms? (Think number of cells)
What are complex organisms (Think number of cells)
Multi-celled with cells that have CELL SPECIALIZATION.
Name some unicellular organisms;
bacteria, SOME protists (protozoans, phytoplankton), yeast
Name some complex organisms;
Animals, plants, fungi, SOME protists (algae)
What is the order of the organization of life from smallest to largest?
- -Biological macro-molecules
- -Organ systems
- (A bad orc could toast other obese orcs)
Name some biological macro-molecules
- -Nucleic acid
Name some organelles
Name some kinds of cells
- -Muscle cells
- -Nerve cells
Name some types of tissues
- -Nerve tissue
- -Wood tissue
Name some organ systems
- -Cardiovascular system
- -Muscular system
- -Nervous system
- -Root system
What is a stimulus?
A change in an environment that causes a response
Give some examples of stimuli
Temperature, pH, or acidity changes
What is a response?
A reaction to a stimulus
Why does an organism have a response to stimuli?
Because organisms want to maintain homeostasis
What is homeostasis?
A steady state of unchanging, stable internal conditions
What systems figure out the stimulus and form a response?
The nervous and endocrine systems
What is regulation?
All processes which help an organism to maintain homeostasis
What is evolution?
A long term response to environmental stimuli; species adapt and change in response to challenging environmental conditions
Give an example of evolution
A food shortage -> Organism starts to eat a new kind of food -> Body slowly changes in order to obtain food
How to unicellular organisms grow and develop?
They increase in size (grow in individual cell volume)
How to multicellular organisms grow and develop?
They increase in the number of cells and their cells increase in volume
What is cell division called?
In growth and development of organisms, there is a balance between what two things having to do with cells?
# of cells that die and # of cells reproduced
Wat is development?
Changes that an organism goes through as it reaches mature adult form
What are the 9 stages of development?
- 1. Zygote
- 2. Morula (32)
- 3. Blastula (Hollow; in uterus wall)
- 4. Gastrula (MANY layers)
- 5. Embryo
- 6. Fetus
- 7. Newborn
- 8. Child
- 9. Adult
What are telomeres?
The protective tips at the ends of strands of DNA
Is reproduction necessary to the life of an individual?
Is reproduction essential for the species's creation of new organisms?
What is A-sexual reproduction?
One parent, NO genetic variation, ENERGETICALLY INEXPENSIVE
What is sexual reproduction?
Two parents, genetic variation, ENERGETICALLY EXPENSIVE
What is the difference between sexual and a-sexual reproduction?
-A-sexual reproduction has one parent whereas sexual has two
-A-sexual reproduction has absolutely NO genetic variation through the generations, whereas sexual has a fair amount of genetic variation
-A-sexual reproduction is NOT energetically expensive, where sexual reproduction is
What is DNA?
A molecule that caries an individual's genetic code and determines the organism's identity and physical traits
What is a gene?
A specific region of DNS that causes the expression of a particular physical trait
What are some physical traits that genes can effect?
Eye color, hair color, number of muscle cells, etc
What's the difference between a gene, DNA, and a chromosome?
A gene is a specific section of DNA which is a molecule that carries genetic code. A chromosome is essentially a grouping of DNA
What is number one representing?
What is number two representing?
What is number three representing?
What is number four representing?
What is a chromosome?
Thread-like structures of packaged DNA with a centromere as a center point, and two sets of "arms;" The p arms, or shorter set of arms, and the q arms, or the longer set of arms
What are muscle striations?
On muscles, they appear as stripes on segments of the muscle cells, and they help for the muscle cells to be stronger
Is Skeletal muscle voluntary or involuntary>
Is skeletal muscle striated or non-striated?
Where is skeletal muscle found
Attatched to the skeleton
What is the purpose of skeletal muscle
Movement of the body
Is smooth muscle voluntary or involuntary?
Is smooth muscle striated or non-striated?
Where is smooth muscle found?
On the walls of hollow organs or blood vessels
What is the purpose of smooth muscle?
Involuntary movements such as peristalsis
What is peristalsis?
The involuntary movement that is a wave of contractions; ie peristalsis is used to squish/push food from the mouth to the stomach
Is cardiac muscle voluntary or involuntary?
Is cardiac muscle striated or non-striated?
Where is cardiac muscle found?
What is the purpose of cardiac muscle?
It causes contractions of the heart
What kind of muscle is this?
What does smooth muscle look like?
Oval-like things that just slightly overlap with nuclei anywhere
What does cardiac muscle look like?
"Random" blobs with nuclei anywhere
What is an origin?
A point where muscle attaches to the stationary bone (doesn't move during flexing)
What is the insertion?
The point where muscle attaches to the moving bone. Muscles often work in antagonistic pairs at a joint
How to antagonistic pairs work?
One muscle contracts to bend a joint and the other contracts to straighten the joint
What is a flexor?
A muscle that bends the joing
What is an extensor?
A muscle that straightens a joing
Label the diagram
What are the five functions of a skeletal system?
- -Supports the entire body (fights gravity)
- -Protects portions of the body
- -Produces blood cells
- -Stores calcium, a mineral which gives strength to bones (involved in muscular contractions and nerve functions)
- -Provides a place for muscles to attach
What is the axial skeleton?
The part of the skeleton that runs from the top of the head to the hips, containing the skull, vertebral column, and ribs (think central)
What is the appendicular skeleton?
Bones that branch out from the axial skeleton, including the pelvis, scapula, clavicle, and bones of the arms and legs (think appendages)
Label this Generalized Bone Structure Diagram
True or false: Bone are not alive
FALZIES. BONES ARE ALIVE
What is the periosteum?
THe touch membrane which covers the bone surface which contains many blood vessels and nerves
What is compact bone?
The layer which is the hard part of the bone; contains "Haversian" canals
What are Haversian canals?
Channels where blood vessels are found in compact bone
What is spongy bone?
Hard, but not dense bone; makes bones light yet strong
What are the two types of blood marrow?
Red and yellow marrow
Where is red marrow found?
In spongy bones
What does red marrow do?
It produces red blood cells and white blood cels
What is yellow marrow?
consists of fat cells and acts as an energy reserve
What is ossification?
The process of hardening cartilage into bone through the addition of minerals such as calcium
What is Cartilage?
A type of flexible tissure
What does cartilage do?
Provides support, flexibility, and cushioning
Where is cartilage found?
In the nose, ears, between vertebrae, and in between bones in joints
What are joints?
The location where to bones meet
What are the three types of joints?
Fixed joints, semimovable joints, and movable joints
What are fixed joints?
No movement where bones meet (ex. the skull)
What are semi-movable joints?
joints that permit limited movement (ex. vertebral column and ribs)
What are movable joints?
Joints that allow movement where bones meet
What are the five kinds of movable joints?
- 1. Hinge
- 2. Ball & socket
- 3. Pivot
- 4. Gliding
- 5. Saddle
What is a hinge joint (it's movable)
A joint that moves back and forth (ex. elbow and knee
What is a ball and socket joint? (it's movable)
A joint that rotates in a circle, up, down, forward, and backwards (ex. hip and shoulder)
What is a pivot joint? (it's movable)
A joint that can move side to side and up and down (ex. top (1st and second vertebrae) of the vertaebral column)
What is a gliding joint? (it's movable)
A joint which allows bones to slide over one another (ex. wrist and foot bones)
What is a saddle joint? (it's movable)
A joint which allows to rotate the thumb and grasp objects
What is a ligament?
A tough band of connective tissue which holds bones of a joint in place (BONE to BONE) (think of a GARMENT on a skeleton)
What is synovial fluid?
A lubricating substance secreted by cells lining the surface of a joint
What is a tendon?
Connective tissue which holds MUSCLE to a BONE (think that muscles TEND to get sore)
What is a hormone?
a chemical secreted by an endocrine gland that specifically influences certain target cells (Hormones are the texts of the body)
What is the endocrine system?
A system of glands that transmit chemical messages throughout the body
What are 7 examples of endocrine glands?
- 1. Pineal gland
- 2. Pituitary gland
- 3. Adrenal gland
- 4. Thyroid gland
- 5. Parathyroid gland
- 6. Ovaries/testes
- 7. Pancreas
Does it take a long or a short time for a message to be sent through the nervous system?
a short time
Is the response of a nervous system message rapid or gradual?
What kinds of messages are sent through the nervous system?
Does it take a long or a short time for a message to be sent through the endocrine system?
A long time (2-4 seconds)
Is the response of an endocrine system message rapid or gradual?
Gradual over a couple of minutes
What kind of messages are sent through the endocrine system?
Chemicals dissolved in blood
What is negative feedback?
A change of bodily conditions outside the acceptable range that triggers an automatic response to maintain homeostasis
What is the Negative Feedback Mechanism/Loop?
The release of a specific hormone that corrects or negates the original stimulus
Suppose the stimulus is you eat and your blood sugar level rises; form the negative feedback loop for this situation.
- Normal blood sugar level
- Stimulus: blood sugar level rises
- Receptor: pancreas
- Control center: pancreas releases the hormone insulin
- Effector: body cells open cell membranes to glucose
- response: blood glucose lowers
- Normal blood sugar level
What 3 things does the nervous system do?
- -Senses changes in the environment
- -Allows responses to stimuli
- -Maintains homeostasis
What is the Central Nervous System (CNS comprised of?
The brain in spinal chord
Name five functions of the brain
- -Controls and coordinates voluntary muscular activity
- -Think, learn, reason, and remember
- -Receives input from sensory organs and responds
- -Maintains balance
- -Controls the movement of involuntary muscle
What is the Peripheral Nervous System comprised of?
Nerve pathways outside of the CNS; made up of two divisions
What are the two divisions of the PNS?
The sensory and motor divisions
What makes up the Sensory division of the PNS?
Sensory receptors and neurons
What makes up the Motor division of the PNS?
What does the Sensory division of the PNS do?
It acquires information from external and internal environments and relays it to the CNS
What are three types of Sensory neurons/nerve cells and what do they respond to?
- Thermoreceptors - Changes in temperature
- Pain receptors - Tissue damage
- Mechanoreceptors - Movement and pressure
What does the Motor division of the PNS do?
It conducts response of CNS to effectors and allows the body, through muscles and glands, to respond to sensory input; conducts electrochemical signals to muscles/glands
What is an effector?
A muscle or gland stimulated by a neuron
What is a neurotransmitter?
A chemical released by axon terminals that diffuse and carry the neuron's signal across the synapse
What does a cell body contain?
The nucleus and organelles
What are dendrites?
Membrane-bound extensions from the cell body that receive signals from other nerve cells
What is an axon?
A long, membrane-bound projection that transmits signals away from the cell body
What is the axon terminal?
The end of the axon which may stimulate a muscle, gland, or another nerve cell
What is the myelin sheath?
A lipid layer around most nerve cells that insulates and speeds the transmission of electrochemical signals
Draw a reflex arc of someone stubbing their toe
Label the diagram