Anthro - study guide questions

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Anthro - study guide questions
2014-12-14 20:06:36
anthro guide

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  1. Define Anthropology? what is it?
    • The study of human kind past and present 
    • involves holistic approach, study of the whole human condition
    • involves 4 subfields: linguistic Anthropology, archaeological anthropology, biological anthropology, sociocultural anthropology
    • comparative cross cultural approach is essential
  2. who are the dobe ju'hoansi? where do they live?
    • best-documented foraging society in south africa, kalahari, particulrly dobe area
    • live in bands and settle around watering holes
    • communicate using click sounds
    • social system based on kinship, reciprocity, and sharing
    • lack formal law
    • egalitarian society
  3. organized life in groups typical of humans and  other animals including baboons, rats, ants
  4. 4 subfields of anthropology
    • linguistic
    • archaeological
    • biological
    • sociolcutural

    *5th - applied anthropology
  5. what is sociocultural anthropology?
    • study of human society and culture
    • involves ethnography and ethnology
  6. what is biological (physical) anthropology?
    study of hominid evolution
  7. what is linguistic anthropology?
    study of relationship between language and social contexts
  8. what is archaeological anthropology?
    study of remains left behind of past people
  9. what is culture?
    traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that form and guide beliefs and behaviors of people
  10. enculturation
    • culture learned from childhood
    • social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations
  11. for millions of years, hunting and gathering, has been the sole basis of human subsistence
  12. foraging
    • hunting and gathering
    • searching for wild food resources
  13. each subfield (LABS) considers variation in ___ & ___
    • time
    • space
  14. ethnographer gathers data and provides an account of a particular community, society, or culture
  15. fieldwork in a particular culture
  16. who is Margaret Mead? What did she do?
    • famous female anthropologist
    • did ethnographic research in South Pacific, Samoa, about adolescent girls and child rearing
  17. examines, compares, analyzes, and interprets results of ethnography - the data gathered in different societies.
  18. The theoretical, comparative study of society and culture; compares cultures in time and space.
  19. ____ gets data from _____?
    • ethnology
    • ethnography
  20. ethnography
    • provides an account of a particular community, society, or culture.
    • Requires fieldwork to collect data
    • descriptive
    • group and community specific
  21. ethnology
    • Uses data collected by a series of researchers
    • Is usually synthetic
    • Is comparative and cross-cultural
  22. application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods
    to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems.
    applied anthropology
  23. ____ is acquired
  24. enculturation
    process by which a child learns his or her language
  25. ethnocentrism
    • tendency to view one’s own culture as superior  apply one’s own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of other cultures.
    • contributes to social solidarity
  26. The exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact; the original cultural patterns of either or both groups may be altered, but the groups remain distinct.
  27. socially transmitted knowledge and behavior shared by some group of people
  28. judging other cultures by using one’s own cultural standards
  29. idea of avoiding the use of outside standards to judge behavior on a given society
    cultural relativism
  30. research process in which the anthropologist closely observes, records, and engages in the daily life of another culture - an experience labeled as the fieldwork method - and then writes accounts of this culture, emphasizing descriptive details
  31. taking part in the events one is observing, describing, and analyzing.
    participant observation
  32. rapport
    good, friendly working relationship built on trust and respect
  33. taking part in community life
    participant observation
  34. why is it important to engage in participant obeservation?
    to understand why particular groups find particular events and activities meaningful
  35. 2 types of research strategies:
    emic and etic approach
  36. local oriented research strategy
  37. scientist oriented approach
  38. approach investigates how local people think. How do they perceive and categorize the world? What are their rules for behavior? the ethnographer relies on local people to explain things and if something is significant or not
    emic approach
  39. approach shifts the focus from local observations,  categories, explanations, and interpretations to those of the anthropologist. what ethnographer considers important
    etic approach
  40. agreement to take part in the research—after having been informed about its nature, procedures, and possible impacts. should be obtained from anyone who provides information or who might be affected by the research.
    informed consent
  41. According to AAA, the anthropologist’s first concern should be:
    to do no harm to the people, animals or artifacts being studied
  42. who was bronislaw Malinowski, and what did he do?
    • (SEEK)
    • set standard for holistic ethnography
    • established a fieldwork frame for participant observation - lived with natives and pushed for learning the language and engaging in everyday activity
    • emphasized importance of exploring the "imponderabilia of daily life."
    • known for his work among the Trobriand Islanders.

  43. describe how lee began to explore the dobe area and establish rapport?
    • he got informed consent to study them
    • offered to teach english in return
    • gave tobacco
    • asked lots of questions
    • took natives to look for food (nuts) in truck
  44. fieldwork
    • intense, long term research
    • total immersion in culture & language
    • "rite of passage" to become an anthropologist
    • developed by malinowski
  45. qualitative research
    interviews, stories, words, narratives
  46. quantitative research
    numbers and statistics
  47. productivity
    • ability to say new things
    • humans can invent new language, animals cant
  48. morphology
    • study of how sounds combine to form morphemes
    • The study of form
  49. ability to talk about things and events that are not present.
  50. phonemes
    • minimal units of sound
    • Significant sound contrast in a language that serves to distinguish meaning, as in minimal pairs
  51. morphemes
    • words and their meaningful parts
    • minimal units of meaning
  52. phonology
    • study of speech sounds
    • rules governing pronunciation.
  53. lexicon
    vocabulary; a dictionary containing all the morphemes in a language and their meaning
  54. syntax
    structure of words in phrases and sentences
  55. semantics
    • study of meaning
    • A language’s meaning system.
  56. sociolinguistics
    • study of language in its social context
    • Study relationships between social and linguistic variation
  57. Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
    different languages produce different ways of thinking
  58. ethnolinguistics
    • studies relationship between language and culture, and the way different ethnic groups perceive the world.
    • combination between ethnology and linguistics.
  59. what kind of sounds characterize the dobe ju'hoansi's language?
    click sounds
  60. what is the main form of subsistence for the dobe ju'hoansi?
  61. What do the dobe ju'joansi do when someone brings back meat?
    • they insult it
    • to keep the hunter humble and modest
  62. adaptation
    The process by which organisms cope with environmental stresses.
  63. agriculture
    • concerned with farming
    • cultivating land
    • raising crops
    • feeding, breeding, and raising livestock
  64. generalized reciprocity
    • exchanges between closely related individuals expecting nothing in return
    • resources communal

    As social distance increases, reciprocity becomes balanced and finally negative.
  65. horticulture
    plant cultivation
  66. pastorialism
    branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock
  67. redistribution
    • members contribute goods into common pool or fund
    • Major exchange mode of chiefdoms
  68. Profit-oriented principle of exchange that dominates in states, particularly industrial states. Goods and services are bought and sold, and values are determined by supply and demand
    market principle
  69. reciprocity
    • passing goods back and forth without use of money
    • major exchange mode in band and tribal societies
  70. 3 principles of exchange
    • generalized reciprocity
    • negative reciprocity
    • balanced reciprocity
  71. prestige
    • basis for social status
    • Esteem, respect, or approval for qualities considered exemplary.
  72. power
    The ability to exercise one’s will over others—to do what one wants; the basis of political status.
  73. social control
    • maintenance of norms
    • regulation of conflict
    • society constrained into socially approved channels
  74. wealth
    • All a person’s material assets, income, land
    • basis of economic status
  75. law
    • A legal code
    • trial and enforcement
    • characteristic of state
    • binding rules
  76. authority
    persons ability to command others e.g., by government officials
  77. Elman Service introduced 4 types of political organization. what are they?
    • bands
    • tribes
    • cheifdoms
    • states
  78. band characteristics
    • small kin based group (all its members are related by kinship/marriage)
    • found among foragers
    • consensus based decision making
  79. tribe characteristics
    • (BLINE)
    • big men - leadership status achieved through generosity
    • live in villages
    • involve kin groups based on common descent
    • no formal gov't or centralized rule
    • economy based on horticulture and pastoralism
  80. chiefdom characteristics
    • (FSHOP)
    • featured differential access to resources (chief controls resources)
    • social relations based mainly on kinship
    • herding and farming economy
    • organization intermediate between tribes and states
    • permanent political structure
  81. some people have more wealth, power, and prestige than others
    differential access
  82. balanced reciprocity
    • donor expects return of goods
    • could be delayed
  83. negative reciprocity
    both parties attempt to obtain as much with minimal effort