best-documented foraging society in south africa, kalahari, particulrly dobe area
live in bands and settle around watering holes
communicate using click sounds
social system based on kinship, reciprocity, and sharing
lack formal law
organized life in groups typical of humans and other animals including baboons, rats, ants
4 subfields of anthropology
*5th - applied anthropology
what is sociocultural anthropology?
study of human society and culture
involves ethnography and ethnology
what is biological (physical) anthropology?
study of hominid evolution
what is linguistic anthropology?
study of relationship between language and social contexts
what is archaeological anthropology?
study of remains left behind of past people
what is culture?
traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that form and guide beliefs and behaviors of people
culture learned from childhood
social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations
for millions of years, hunting and gathering, has been the sole basis of human subsistence
hunting and gathering
searching for wild food resources
each subfield (LABS) considers variation in ___ & ___
ethnographer gathers data and provides an account of a particular community, society, or culture
fieldwork in a particular culture
who is Margaret Mead? What did she do?
famous female anthropologist
did ethnographic research in South Pacific, Samoa, about adolescent girls and child rearing
examines, compares, analyzes, and interprets results of ethnography - the data gathered in different societies.
The theoretical, comparative study of society and culture; compares cultures in time and space.
____ gets data from _____?
provides an account of a particular community, society, or culture.
Requires ﬁeldwork to collect data
group and community speciﬁc
Uses data collected by a series of researchers
Is usually synthetic
Is comparative and cross-cultural
application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods
to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems.
____ is acquired
process by which a child learns his or her language
tendency to view one’s own culture as superior apply one’s own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of other cultures.
contributes to social solidarity
The exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact; the original cultural patterns of either or both groups may be altered, but the groups remain distinct.
socially transmitted knowledge and behavior shared by some group of people
judging other cultures by using one’s own cultural standards
idea of avoiding the use of outside standards to judge behavior on a given society
research process in which the anthropologist closely observes, records, and engages in the daily life of another culture - an experience labeled as the fieldwork method - and then writes accounts of this culture, emphasizing descriptive details
taking part in the events one is observing, describing, and analyzing.
good, friendly working relationship built on trust and respect
taking part in community life
why is it important to engage in participant obeservation?
to understand why particular groups find particular events and activities meaningful
2 types of research strategies:
emic and etic approach
local oriented research strategy
scientist oriented approach
approach investigates how local people think. How do they perceive and categorize the world? What are their rules for behavior? the ethnographer relies on local people to explain things and if something is significant or not
approach shifts the focus from local observations, categories, explanations, and interpretations to those of the anthropologist. what ethnographer considers important
agreement to take part in the research—after having been informed about its nature, procedures, and possible impacts. should be obtained from anyone who provides information or who might be affected by the research.
According to AAA, the anthropologist’s first concern should be:
to do no harm to the people, animals or artifacts being studied
who was bronislaw Malinowski, and what did he do?
set standard for holistic ethnography
established a fieldwork frame for participant observation - lived with natives and pushed for learning the language and engaging in everyday activity
emphasized importance of exploring the "imponderabilia of daily life."
known for his work among the Trobriand Islanders.
describe how lee began to explore the dobe area and establish rapport?
he got informed consent to study them
offered to teach english in return
asked lots of questions
took natives to look for food (nuts) in truck
intense, long term research
total immersion in culture & language
"rite of passage" to become an anthropologist
developed by malinowski
interviews, stories, words, narratives
numbers and statistics
ability to say new things
humans can invent new language, animals cant
study of how sounds combine to form morphemes
The study of form
ability to talk about things and events that are not present.
minimal units of sound
Significant sound contrast in a language that serves to distinguish meaning, as in minimal pairs
words and their meaningful parts
minimal units of meaning
study of speech sounds
rules governing pronunciation.
vocabulary; a dictionary containing all the morphemes in a language and their meaning
structure of words in phrases and sentences
study of meaning
A language’s meaning system.
study of language in its social context
Study relationships between social and linguistic variation
Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
different languages produce different ways of thinking
studies relationship between language and culture, and the way different ethnic groups perceive the world.
combination between ethnology and linguistics.
what kind of sounds characterize the dobe ju'hoansi's language?
what is the main form of subsistence for the dobe ju'hoansi?
What do the dobe ju'joansi do when someone brings back meat?
they insult it
to keep the hunter humble and modest
The process by which organisms cope with environmental stresses.
concerned with farming
feeding, breeding, and raising livestock
exchanges between closely related individuals expecting nothing in return
As social distance increases, reciprocity becomes balanced and finally negative.
branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock
members contribute goods into common pool or fund
Major exchange mode of chiefdoms
Profit-oriented principle of exchange that dominates in states, particularly industrial states. Goods and services are bought and sold, and values are determined by supply and demand
passing goods back and forth without use of money
major exchange mode in band and tribal societies
3 principles of exchange
basis for social status
Esteem, respect, or approval for qualities considered exemplary.
The ability to exercise one’s will over others—to do what one wants; the basis of political status.
maintenance of norms
regulation of conflict
society constrained into socially approved channels
All a person’s material assets, income, land
basis of economic status
A legal code
trial and enforcement
characteristic of state
persons ability to command others e.g., by government officials
Elman Service introduced 4 types of political organization. what are they?
small kin based group (all its members are related by kinship/marriage)
found among foragers
consensus based decision making
big men - leadership status achieved through generosity
live in villages
involve kin groups based on common descent
no formal gov't or centralized rule
economy based on horticulture and pastoralism
featured differential access to resources (chief controls resources)
social relations based mainly on kinship
herding and farming economy
organization intermediate between tribes and states
permanent political structure
some people have more wealth, power, and prestige than others
donor expects return of goods
could be delayed
both parties attempt to obtain as much with minimal effort