403_exam2_Gait

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Author:
itzlinds
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285996
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403_exam2_Gait
Updated:
2014-10-23 22:22:20
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403 exam2 gait
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gait
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  1. describe the pronation of the lower extremity at the following joints:

    pelvis:
    • anterior rotation (increased lordosis)
    • depression
  2. describe the pronation of the lower extremity at the following joints:

    Hip:
    • flexion
    • internal rotation
    • ADD
  3. describe the pronation of the lower extremity at the following joints:

    knee:
    • flexion
    • tibial internal rotation
    • ADD
  4. describe the pronation of the lower extremity at the following joints:

    ankle/foot:
    • talar ADD & PF
    • calcanal eversion
  5. describe the pronation of the lower extremity at the following joints:

    forefoot:
    ABD
  6. if you landed from a jump & couldn't control the landing well, what LE position would you land into:
    LE pronation
  7. what is the plane in which most people will have injury or other problems:
    transverse/rotatory plane
  8. describe supination of the lower extremity at the following joints:

    pelvis:
    • posterior rotation (increased lordosis)
    • elevation
  9. describe supination of the lower extremity at the following joints:

    hip:
    • extension
    • external rotation
  10. describe supination of the lower extremity at the following joints:

    knee:
    • extension
    • tibial external rotation
  11. describe supination of the lower extremity at the following joints:

    ankle/foot:
    • talar ABD & DF
    • calcaneal inversion
  12. describe supination of the lower extremity at the following joints:

    forefoot:
    ADD
  13. the time the heel touches the ground to the time it touches ground again is called:
    gait cycle
  14. the distance of heel strike of one foot to the same foot in one gait cycle is called:
    stride length

    • ~61 inches
    • right foot, back to right foot
  15. the distance of heel strike of one foot to the other foot in the same gait cycle is called:
    step length

    right foot to left foot
  16. about 60-120 steps per minute (length will vary by speed & cadence) is called:
    cadence
  17. the distance between midline of one foot during midstance to the other foot in midstance is called:
    stride width

    ~3 ince
  18. list the components of stance phase:
    • heel strike
    • foot flat (loading response)
    • midstance
    • heel off (terminal stance)
    • toe off (pre swing)
  19. which phase of the gait cycle occurs when the foot is not in contact with the floor:
    swing phase
  20. list the components of swing phase:
    • early swing (acceleration)
    • mid swing (swing thru)
    • late swing (deceleration)
  21. why do most people not have any problems associated with the swing phase of gait:
    it is not weight bearing, not loading, and not accelerating
  22. which structure is the last reign that stops pronation motions of the LE:

    nomrally muscles would declerate this motion, if muscles did not decelerate & there was enough force to keep you driving in the pronated direction:
    ACL is the next decelerator, if force is great enough it tears

    ACL is anti - pronation ligament
  23. list the 3 components of stance phase of which the LE is pronated:
    • heel strike
    • foot flat (loading response)
    • midstance
  24. list the names of the clinical terminology for which the research term is given:

    loading response:
    terminal stance:
    preswing:
    • loading response: foot flat
    • terminal stance: heel off
    • preswing: toe off
  25. saunders traditional description of gait is described as:
    sinusoidal motion of center of gravity

    this movement is vertical (sagittal plane) & horizontal (frontal plane)
  26. efficient gait minimizes the COG movement.

    describe an example using a hurdler:
    • when looking at a hurdler from behind, it shouldnt look like head is bobbing up & down
    • there is not alot of wasted movement
    • primarly movement in the same direction
    • in gait head only bobs up & down a lil bit becuase joints are flexing/extending at different points
  27. how is minimal movement of COG accomplished thru movement at the pelvis:
    • in the frontal plane
    • during walking the pelvis is goin up & down a lil bit, but not dropping a whole lot
    • it is controled movement at the pelvis
  28. more recent descriptions of gait also describe the importance of movemnt in the transverse plane.

    lack of transverse plane movement will result in what:
    more frontal & sagittal plane motion
  29. when looking at a pt. with a gait deviation, make sure to check which 3 contributing factors:
    • lack of ROM
    • lack of strength
    • lack of controlled strength, motor control
  30. if you are watching a pt. walk & there is alot of up & down movement. what should that que you into:
    looking at a sagittal plane problem, (Flexion/extension)
  31. the knee is extended at heel strike.

    it rapidly flexes to 15o at midstance, decreasing vertical displacement at the gait cycle's highest point.

    why is the 15o important:
    when the knee bends, it also rotates & flexes which is an unstable position

    key thing to work on in rehab (post injury) is to lock/unlock in a controlled manner

    • getting person to load correctly:
    • requires quad strength
    • Hip Internal rotation controlled by the external rotators; piriformis & deep ER's are controlling eccentrically

    • when a person has knee injury, either walk with leg straight, no movment @ knee or swing leg out to the side b/c then cant bend it enough to clear
    • after injury pt may be "nervous" to unlock knee from straight to bent
  32. trunk rotation occurs in the opposite direction of pelvic rotation.

    when the L side of the pelvis rotates anteriorly, how does the trunk on the right side rotate:
    forward

    thats why opposite arm & opposite leg
  33. list the pronation segment of the gait cycle:
    heel strike to midstance
  34. list the supination of the gait cycle:
    midstance to toe off
  35. if a pt. could not extend the hip, what would the compensation look like:

    would be the the potential result of this compensation: (2)
    more motion in another plane, so might externally rotate him more (& foot too)

    • results of compensation
    • may lead to a tight piriforms
    • cant absorb shock b/c they cant internally rotate
  36. the glute med has 2 fxns during heel strike (HS) to midstance (MS), list the following:

    lateral hip:
    Hip Internal rotation:
    • lateral hip: stabilization
    • hip internal rotation: Eccentric, deceleration
  37. the glute max has 2 fxns during the stance phase of gait (HS-MS), list the following:

    hip flexion:
    femoral internal rotation:
    • hip flexion: eccentric
    • femoral internal rotation: eccentric
  38. list how the glute max fxns during MS - TO (toe off):

    hip extension:
    concentric
  39. the quad has 2 fxns during the stance phase of gait, list the following:

    flexion:
    femoral internal rotation:
    • flexion: eccentrically, to control the 15 degree of knee flexion
    • femoral internal rotation: ecentrically
  40. list the fxn of the quad during MS - TO (toe off):

    extension:
    extension: concentric to move the knee from the 15 degrees of flexion into extension
  41. how do the hamstrings fxn just prior to heel strike:
    eccentric in OKC knee extension (deceleration)
  42. how to the hamstrings fxn from HS to MS:

    hip flexion:
    hip flexion: Eccentric
  43. how does the tibialis anterior fxn during HS to MS:
    eccentrically
  44. how does the tibialis anterior during the MS to TO (toe off):
    concentric, accelerates
  45. how does the tibialis posterior fxns during HS to MS:

    internal rotation:
    internal rotation: eccentrically controls internal rotation of tibia as it rotates on a fixed ankle

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