500-human diff

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500-human diff
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2014-10-16 23:30:59
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  1. Multidemsional Framework
    • BioPsychSocial perspective
    • hierarchial
    • interactions with others and entire env.
  2. developmental perspective
    assessment of how the dimensions interact in leading up to the current state of affairs or developmental outcome.
  3. life span vs life course
    life span:focuses on changes in behave across life span due to  age

    life course: takes into account developmental issues that involves macro(env and social ages) contributions to dev outcomes
  4. genes
    Cell—tissue—organ—system

    Cell nucleus contains genetic information in the form of nucleic acids located in chromosomes
  5. Gene disorders
    single gene:dom-50/50 chance of occurring (strong index effect) recess:(25%) only occurs with presence of other recessive gene

    • Chrom: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome
    •  Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome
  6. Genes and env
    • Nature via nurture: gentetic vs environment
    •  Reduce deterministic view 
    • Interventions to modify environment
  7. Growth & Dev of Neuron
    • 3 major spurs: last trimester, 1st yr of life, prior to puberty
    • 4 stages
    • proliferation:production of new cells
    • migration: migrate to different locations
    • differentiation: form axons & dendrites
    • myelination:insulated by sheets of myelin->travel fast
  8. allostatic load
    measure of wear and tear from chronic overactivity or under activity. lower is better
  9. psychodynamic theory
    • ID: Unconscious,present a birth
    • Guided by the“PleasurePrinciple”
    • Ego: Conscious, rational part of mind
    • Emerges in early infancy 
    • Source of impulse control
    • Superego:Social-moral component (i.e.,theconscience)
    • Dev from parent-child interactions (age 3-6)
  10. Freud’s stages of psychosocial development 
    • Oral 0-1
    • Anal 1-3
    • Phallic 3-6 genitals id w adult role model
    • Latency 6-12 social relationships
    • genital puberty intimate relationshiops
  11. types of defense mechanisms
    psych & immature
    • Projection:internal exp onto outside world--lack of insight of ones feelings
    • distortion:reshape internal reality to reflect internal

    • Denial:refusal to accept reality, doesn't exist
    • splitting:dividing ppl into all good/all bad
    • acting out: unconcious emotions thorough phys actions
    • somatization:psych distress->phys distress
    • passive agression:passive anger towards others
    • undoing:engaging in act that undo unaccept thoughts
  12. defense mechanisms
    NEURO & MATURE
    • repression:moving conflict from conscious to unconscious
    • intellectualization: dev a rational understand of conflict vs emotion
    • reaction formation: substituting opposite beh,thoughts,or feeling for unaccept ones
    • displacement: transfer feelings from one obj to another

    • sublimation:transferring conflict from harmful to socially acceptable
    • anticipation: dealing w emot conflicts in advance
    • humor:laughing
    • Altruism: putting others over self
  13. Erickson's psychosocial theory
    • - Psychosocial approach
    •  -Epigenetic principle

    •  Eight psychosocial stages of development
    •  Infancy (trustvs.mistrust)
    •  Earlychildhood(autonomyvs.shame,doubt)
    •  Playage(initiative vs.guilt)
    •  Schoolage(industryvs.inferiority)
    •  Adolescence(identityvs.identifyconfusion)
    •  Youngadulthood(intimacyvs.isolation)
    •  Maturity(generativityvs.self-absorption)
    •  Oldage(integrityvs.despair,disgust)
  14. Watson's behaviorism
    • Development depends on learning observed
    • behaviors, not through cognitive processes

    •  Classical conditioning
    •  The experiment of LittleAlbert
  15. Skinners operant cond.
    • Reinforcement
    •  Punishment
    •  Negative reinforcement
    •  Extinction
  16. Banduras social learning
    •  Cognitive behaviorists
    •  Observational learning
    •  The role of self-efficacy -self esteem
  17. Piaget’s structural approach to cognition
    • Schema
    •  Adaptation
    •  Assimilation
    • Accommodation
    •  Organization
    •  Systematization
    •  Physical structures
  18. Developmental stages of cognition
    • Sensorimotor
    • birth-2
    • Understands world through senses and actions

    • Preoperational
    • 2-7 yrs
    • Understands world through language and mental images

    • Concrete operational
    • 7-12yrs
    • Understands world through logical thinking and categories

    • Formal operational
    • 12 yrs onward
    • Understands world through hypothetical thinking and scientific reasoning
  19. Information Processing
    • Consciousness and orientation
    • Perception
    • Attention
    • Learning

    •  Memory
    •  Comprehension
    •  Reasoning and judgment
  20. Ecological system theory
    •  Ecology
    •  Holism vs.reductionism
    •  Basic ideas of ecological systems theory
    •  System

    • Microsystems: fam, school, work, neighborhood
    • Mesosystems: interactions btwn microsys
    •  Exosystems: econ,political,edu sys
    • Macrosystems:overarching beliefs/valus Chronosystems: dimension of time
  21. Modern functionalism
    • Theory of agency
    •  Structural functionalism
    • AGIL : the four functional imperatives

    • -adaptation, goal attainment, integration, latent
    • pattern maintenance

    •   The utility of the AGIL system for understanding social institutions; survival & stability
    •   ‘functions’ of poverty
  22. Conflict Theories
    • -The role of the economic base in the
    • development of social life
    • -The role of production in Marx’s theory
    • -Contradictions between relations of production
    • and forces of production
    • - Process of social change
  23. Postmodernism
    • Modern vs. postmodern societies
    •  The role of science in postmodernism
    •  The de-centering of knowledge and values
    •  Jean-Francois Lytoard’s views of science
  24. Social exchange theories
    • -Social life seen as exchange of resources or
    • rewards
    • -Close ties with economics and principles of
    • behaviorism
    •  -Reciprocal and negotiated exchanges
  25. Why ppl belong to groups
    • -Fulfill our need for affiliation
    • - To increase our sense of identity or our self-esteem 
    • -To obtain social comparisons between ourselves and others
    • - Increase sense of security and power
    • - Accomplish particular tasks
  26. Social id theory
    • -Social identity and positive in-group comparisons
    • -Social identity contributes not only to people seeing important differences in one’s group, but similarity or homogeneity in out-group members
    • -Overvaluation of one’s groups contributes to many forms of social conflict
  27. Social support systems
    • -Formal support systems
    •  Formal organizations
    • Formed groups
    • -Informal support systems
    • Self-help and mutual aid groups
    •  Social help groups
    •  Personal coping groups
    • - Socialnetworks
    • - Naturalhelpers
  28. Notions of comm and identity
    • Community as a place or location
    •  Community as a type of relationships
    •  Community as a source of identification
    •  Community as a resource or interest-based
  29. Theory x, y,z
    • looks at work within organization
    • x worst z best(collective)

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