Equine Test II

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Equine Test II
2014-11-05 00:41:57
Equine Test II
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  1. Mild, Moderate and Severe Heart Rate in a Colic Horse:
    • Mild: 40-60
    • Moderate: 60-80
    • Severe: 80+
  2. Mild, Moderate and Severe Respiratory Rate in a Colic Horse:
    • Mild: 20-30
    • Moderate: 30-40
    • Severe: 40+
  3. Mild, Moderate and Severe Temperature in a Colic Horse:
    • Mild: 99-100.5
    • Moderate: 99-100.5
    • Severe: Over 103, or under 99
  4. Mild, Moderate and Severe Mucous Membrane color in Colic Horse:
    • Mild: Pale pink
    • Moderate: Pale pink/Dark red
    • Severe: Reddish/Purplish
  5. Mild, Moderate and Severe Capillary Refill Time in a Colic Horse:
    • Mild: 1-2 seconds
    • Moderate: 2-4 seconds
    • Severe: 5+ seconds
  6. Mild, Moderate and Severe Gut Sounds in a Colic Horse:
    • Mild: Present/Normal, or increased frequency
    • Moderate: Present/Decreased frequency
    • Severe: Absent
  7. Mild, Moderate and Severe Feces Symptoms in a Colic Horse:
    • Mild: Normal
    • Moderate: Small, hard, fecal balls
    • Severe: None
  8. What items will you need for a Colic First Aid Kit:
    • - "Colic Symptom Checklist"
    • - Temperature
    • - Watch with second hand
    • - Stethoscope
    • - Medications
  9. 3 medications commonly used to relieve Colic symptoms:
    • - Butazolidan
    • - Banamine
    • - Dipyrone
  10. What is the heart rate for a horse?
    28-40 BPM
  11. What is the normal temperature for a horse?
    99.5 - 100.5 °F
  12. What is the term for listening with a stethoscope?
  13. Borborygmus:
    Rumbling, or gurgling noises produced by movement of gas in the alimentary canal and audible at a distance.
  14. What parts of the digestive tract are in the Fore Gut?
    • - Stomach
    • - Duodenum
    • - Jejunum
    • - Ileum
  15. What parts of the digestive system are in the Hind Gut?
    • - Cecum
    • - Large Colon
    • - Small Colon
  16. What type of digestion is the Fore Gut?
    Enzymatic Digestion
  17. What type of digestion is the Hind Gut?
    Microbial Digestion
  18. Intestinal irritaion/decreases perfusion:
    Causes decreased motility.
  19. Simple obstruction (impaction):
    Increased contractile activity in an attempt to move the obstruction more distally.
  20. Infectious process (enteritis, peritonitis):
    Decreased of no contractile activity.
  21. Horses with normal to increases intestinal sounds respond to _________.
    Medical therapy.
  22. Horses with decreased sounds generally require _______.
  23. Diseases of the Digestive System:
    • a) Dental Problems
    • b) Esophageal Obstruction/Choke
    • c) Parasitic Gastric Disease
    • d) Gastric Ulcers 
    • e) Gastric Dilation/Rupture
    • f) Salmonellois
    • g) Cantharidin Toxicity
    • h) Retained Meconium
    • i) Foal Heat Diarrhea
    • k) Colic
  24. Clinical Signs of Esophageal Obstructions/Choke:
    • - Regurgitation of food, water, saliva through mouth and nostrils.
    • - Horse may also be anxious after eating, and hold its neck straight out and arched.
    • - Enlargement of the cervical esophagus.
  25. Complications that can arise with Esophageal Obstruction/Choke:
    • -Aspiration pneumonia
    • -Esophageal stricture/rupture
  26. Treatment for Esophageal Obstruction/Choke:
    • a) Nasogastric tube passage and gentle warm water lavage under Xylazine sedation.
    • b) Surgical measure may be needed.
  27. With Esophageal Obstruction/Choke, what should you do after the obstruction is removed?
    • - Feed animal small quantities of small food.
    • - Antibiotics
  28. Episodes of choke can occur up to ___ days after injury, even when the soft diet is given.
    40 days.
  29. 2 types of Parasitic Gastric Disease:
    • 1. Horse Bots
    • 2. Habronemiasis
  30. Horse Bots:
    • Etiology: Larva of bot flies, Gasterophilus
    • Clinical Signs: Mild gastritis or no signs at all.
    • Diagnoses: Difficult
    • Treatment: Routinely treated with a botacide in the fall.
  31. Habronemiasis:
    • Etiology: Stomach worms (Habronema muscae
    •                                      or Drashia megastoma)
    • Clinical Signs: Usually absent
    • Diagnoses: Difficult
    • Treatment: Routine anthelminthic therapy.
  32. Gastric Ulcers in Foals:
    • Etiology: Stress of disease, Failure of passive 
    •                                           transfer.
    • Clinical Signs: 
    •              a) Foals often lay on back to get 
    •                   pressure off stomach.
    •              b) Foals grind their teeth. (bruxism)
    • Diagnoses: Clinical signs
    • Treatment: Tagament and Cimetidine
  33. Gastric Dilation/Rupture:
    • Etiology: 
    •         -Primarily from over consumption of grain.
    •         -Secondarily from intestinal obstruction.
    • Clinical Signs: Abdominal pain
    • Diagnoses: Passage of nasogastric tube will 
    •                   tell if stomach is full of gas/fluid.
    • Treatment: 
    •          a) Decompression of stomach using
    •               nasogastric tube.
    •          b) Surgical correction
    •          c) Fluid therapy.
  34. Salmonellosis:
    • Etiology: Several salmonella spp.
    • Clinical Signs: Acute diarrhea, projectile                                diarrhea, fever, depression, abdominal pain.
    • Diagnoses: Fecal culture. (at least 5 because                                     its  shed infrequently.)
    • Treatments: Fluid therapy, antidiarrheals, anti-inflammatory drugs and antimicrobial.
    • Prevention: Minimize stress, isolate the sick, and disinfect.
  35. Canthardin Toxicity:
    • Etiology: Ingestion of dead blister beetles (Epicanta lemniscate)
    • Clinical Signs: Abdominal pain, anorexia, depression, congested mucous membranes and elevated temp, pulse and respiration and drinking water frequently.
    • Diagnoses: No specific test. Blood results will show evidence of dehydration, renal compromise and decreased calcium and magnesium.
    • Treatment: Symptomatic therapy.
    • Prevention: Be wary of beetles.
  36. Retained Meconium:
    • Etiology: Results from impaction of fecal pallets
    • Clinical Signs: Appear during the first 24 hrs, abdominal pain, colic. Foals will try to defecate.
    • Diagnoses: Clinical signs or palpatation of meconium at the anal sphincter.
    • Treatment: Soapy enemas, mineral oil per os and analgesics to control pain.
    • Prevention: Routine administration of enemas at birth.
  37. Foal Heat Diarrhea:
    • Etiology: Physiological changes within the foals GI tract.
    • Clinical Signs: Foal bright and alert, soft watery feces, and normal rectal temp.
    • Diagnoses: Timing of clinical signs.
    • Treatment: Selflimiting. No treatment is really needed if foal continues to be bright and alert.
  38. Foal Diarrhea - Other Causes:
    • Etiologies: - Salmonellosis
    •                   - Escherichia Coli
    •                   - Clostridium perfringens
    •                   - Rotavirus
    •                   - Coronavirus
  39. Clinical signs of Diarrhea in Foals:
    • - Diarrhea
    • - Dehydration
    • - Septicemia
    • - Anorexia, weakness
  40. Treatment for Diarrhea in Foals:
    • - Fluids and electrolytes
    • - Nutritional supplementation
    • - Supportive care
  41. What is Colic?
    GI upset that can be caused by various etiologies.
  42. Etiologies of Colic:
    • a) Small intestinal volvulus & strangulation.
    • b) Intussusception
    • c) Impaction of ilium
    • d) Thromboembolic mesenteric vascular disease. (strongyles)
    • e) Large colon impaction
    • f) Cecal impaction
    • g) Sand Colic
    • h) Large colon displacements
    • i) Colonic volvulus
    • j) Enteroliths
  43. What does Volvulus mean?
    Twisting, or torsion
  44. What does Intussusception mean?
    Telescoping of intestines.
  45. What is Sand Colic?
    • - Horse will eat sand along with hay if on the ground.
    • - Also will consume sand if they have to drink from shallow muddy ponds.
    • - Often found in pelvic flexure and transverse colon.
  46. What is Enteroliths?
    • - Stone formations grown in stomach.
    • - Consist of mineralized aggregates of ingested salts that form slowly n the large colon.
    • - Often found in right dorsal colon, small colon.
  47. Clinical signs of Colic?
    • - Abdominal pain
    • - Abdominal distention
    • - Depression
    • - Simple obstruction
    • - Strangulating obstruction
  48. Cold Limbs =
  49. Diagnoses for Colic:
    • - Evaluate temp, heart rate and respiratory rate, capillary refill time, mucous membrane color and blood samples.
    • - Abdominal auscultation
    • - Nasogastric tube intubation
    • - Rectal examination
    • - Abdominocentesis
  50. What is Abdominocentesis?
    Needle in the abdominal cavity to collect fluid.

    • Green = Peritonitis
    • Red = Blood
    • Clear = Normal
  51. Name a parasite that affects the mouth:
    Gasterophilus (bot larvae)
  52. Parasites of the Stomach:
    • - Draschia megastoma (stomach worm)
    • - Habronema spp. (stomach worm)
    • - Trichostrongyles axei (min. stomach worm)
    • - Gasterophilus spp. (bot larvae)
  53. Parasites of the Small Intestine:
    • - Parascaris equorum (ascarids)
    • - Strongyloides westeri (intestinal threadworm)
    • - Anoplocephala magna (tapeworm)
    • - Paranoplocephala mamillana (tapeworm)
  54. Parasites of the Large Intestine:
    • - Strongyles spp. (large strongyles)
    • - Cyathostomum spp. (small strongyles)
    • - Oxyuris equi (common pinworm)
    • - Anoplocephala perfoliata (tapeworm)
  55. Name a parasite of the Liver:
    Strongyles edentatus (large strongyles larvae)
  56. Parasites of the Lungs:
    • - Parascaris equorum (ascarid larvae)
    • - Dictyocaulus arnfieldi (lungworm)
    • - Draschia megastoma (stomach worm larvae)
    • - Habronema spp. (stomach worm larvae)
  57. Name a parasite of the Arteries:
    Strongylus vulgaris (large strongyles larvae)
  58. Name a parasite of the Body Cavity:
    Strongylus edentatus (large strongyles larvae)
  59. Parasites of the Skin and Connective Tissue:
    • - Draschia, Habronema larvae ("summer sore" nematodes)
    • - Onchocerca spp. (threadworm)
    • - Strongyloides westeri (intestine threadworm)
  60. Name two parasites of the Eye:
    • - Thelazia lacrymalis (eyeworm)
    • - Onchocerca cervicalis (threadworm)
  61. What is the active ingredient in Eqvalan Liquid and Paste?
  62. What is the active ingredient in Panacur Granules and Paste?
  63. What is the active ingredient in Anthelcide EQ Paste?
  64. What is the active ingredient in Dichlorvos Granules Horse Wormer?
  65. What is the active ingredient in Equizole A Liquid?
  66. What is the active ingredient in Strongid Paste and Strongid - T?
    Pyrante Pamoate
  67. What is the active ingredient in Strongid C?
    Pyrantel Tartrate
  68. Name two Anthelmerthic's that won't kill the larvae:
    Panacur Granules and Strongid Paste
  69. When there is a suspected Colic horse, you will evaluate what?
    • - Temperature
    • - Heart rate
    • - Respiratory rate
    • - Peripheral pulse
    • - Mucous membrane color
    • - Capillary refill time
    • - PCV/Total Protein
  70. When performing a Colic evaluation on a horse, you would check the temperature in case it is:
    • - Enteritis
    • - Peritonitis
    • - Pleuritis (pleuro pneumonia)
  71. Respiratory Rate will increased in a Colic horse with:
    • - Pain
    • - Metabolic acidosis
    • - Abdominal distention
  72. Strength of peripheral pulse in a Colic horse will give you an assessment of the _______ function and ______.
    • - Cardiovascular function
    • - Tissue perfusion ( w/ weak pulse)
  73. Mucous membrane changes associated with Endotoxic Shock divided in two stages:
    • Stage One:
    • - Vasodilation will causes mucous membrane to turn bright red. 
    • - Capillary refill time faster than usual.

    • Stage Two:
    • - Vasoconstriction causes mucous membrans to become dark red (injected), blue or muddy (toxic), or even pale if blood in shunted to other organs.
    • - Delayed capillary refill time with poor tissue perfusion in hypovolemia cases.
  74. PCV will be ____ and total protein will be _____ in a colic horse.
    • - elevated
    • - decreased
  75. Two procedures that can be done to evaluate a Colic horse:
    • - Nasogastric Tube Intubation
    • - Adominocentesis
  76. Nasogastric Tube Intubation:
    • - Needs to be done in all cases to prevent gastric rupture.
    • - The greater the volume of reflux, the more proximal the lesion.
    • - The color of the reflux will help you asses.
    •          a) Yellowish Green - Presence of
    •               reflux, originating distal to common
    •               bile duct.
    •          b) Reddish - Mucosal damage or
    •               hemorrhage within the intestinal 
    •               tract.
  77. Abdominocentesis:
          a) Intestinal Divitalization
          b) Intestine Necrosis
          c) Fecal Peritonitis
    a) Intestinal Divitalization: RBC and protein lost into the peritoneal fluid causing the fluid to become reddish in color and will have increased turbidity.

    b) Intestine Necrosis: Fluid become darkened. (reddish-brown)

    c) Fecal Peritonitis: Flakes of feed or ingesta in the peritoneal fluid is suggestive of gastric or intestinal rupture or inappropriate placement of the abdominocentesis needle.
  78. The small intestine is ___ meters in length.
    22 meters.
  79. The large colon is ____ meters in length.
    7-8 meters.
  80. Equine Digestive Tract:
  81. There is not one standard vaccine program that covers all horses. DVM’s do a “Disease Risk Assessment,” on every horse:
    • -Asses the situations and environments horse will be exposed to.
    • -Asses the risks and base vaccine schedule on that.
    • -Geographic location.
    • -Time of the year to start vaccines.
    • -What the horses are used for.
    • -Risk and consequence of the disease.
    • -Safety of vaccines.
  82. Horse in the southeast have increased risk of Eastern Encephalitis and horses across the United States are susceptible to West Nile Virus. When should you vaccinate for these diseases?
    Must start vaccinating for these viruses in the Spring and Summer.
  83. American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) recommends you involve your DVM in ____________________.
    The administering and monitoring of vaccines.
  84. What is the significance and importance of a DVM involved with administering and monitoring of vaccines?
    • 1) DVM should be your prime source of up to date information because its science based.
    • 2) DVM will be able to tell you what diseases are prevalent in your area.
    • 3) Notifies you of any outbreaks. This might require you to change your vaccination program.
    • 4) Will notify you of available and new vaccines on the market.
    • 5) Brings relief in knowing you the vaccine is being handled properly.
    • 6) Possible reactions.
    • 7) Good time to do a wellness exam too while getting vaccines done.
  85. Teeth should be checked ______ a year.
  86. Swelling of submandibular lymph nodes indicates possible ________.
    Spinal cord disease.
  87. DVM’s recommend horse owners invest in a stethoscope and get familiar with the sound of the ____, _____, and _____. Know what’s normal and abnormal.
    Heart, lungs and gut.
  88. Rapid _____ during colic is common and your DVM should be contacted.
    Heart rate.
  89. Primary vaccines every horse should have annually, recommended by AAEP:
    • 1) Eastern / Western Equine Encephilitis (mosquitos)
    • 2) West Nile Virus (mosquitos)
    • 3) Tetanus (lives in soil)
    • 4) Rabies (wild animals)
  90. Recommended vaccines for horses at risk of disease. These vaccines depend on what the horse is used for:
    • 1) Influenza
    • 2) Equine Herpes
    • 3) Starngles
  91. Name a vaccine that only requires one dose.
    Intranasal West Nile vaccine.
  92. Horse have _________ immunity at 10 -14 days after the 2nd vaccine dose.
    Active immunity
  93. How horses respond to vaccinations in percentage:
    • 1) 10% of horses don’t respond.
    • 2) 80% of horses respond like we expected them to.
    • 3) 10% of horses respond very well.
  94. Vaccinate mare with all core vaccines and any regional vaccines. Booster mare _____ before her foal is born along with annual core vaccines and any regional vaccines. Do this because this is the time period she is making _______.  This will be the source of protection for her foal for the first _____ of life.
    • - 4-6 weeks
    • - antibody rich colostrum
    • - 3-5 months
  95. What is the leading viral cause of abortions in pregnant mares?
    Equine Herpes Virus

    * Recommend she be vaccinated for EHV-1 at 5 months, 7 months, and 9 months of pregnancy.*
  96. The foal must get colostrum within the first _____ of life.
    4-6 hours
  97. Antibodies begin to drop in foal at _____ months. The new guidelines recommend waiting till foals are a little older before vaccinating them, start at ______ months old.
    • - 4-5 months
    • - 5-6 months
  98. Recommend core vaccines to be given, a series of 3 doses, give the first 2 doses of eastern / western encephalitis, tetanus, rabies, west nile vaccines. Booster in 3 -4 weelks after primary and again in (the 3rd dose) 3 months.
  99. Controlling Infectious Diseases (Contagious Diseases) Besides Vaccinations:
    • 1. Vaccines shouldn’t replace good management.
    • 2. Don’t let horse share same water bucket (most common source of infection) and stall.
    • 3. Disinfect water buckets daily.
    • 4. Don’t let them touch nose to nose
    • 5. Every farm should have a quarantine area and procedure.  
    • 6. Disinfect new horse lead rope and halter in 1 part sodium hypochlorite to 3 parts water. Clean them off of any debris so bleach can activate.
    • 7. Banamine given for pain control or to lower fever.
  100. Making the decision on the number of vaccines and the way to administer them:
    • 1. Don’t know the number of how many vaccines is considered too much at one time for a horse. There are guidelines you try to follow.
    • 2. Try to limit the number of vaccines as best as you can. Ways to this is give Eastern / Western Encephalitis and West Nile vaccines at beginning of spring, the peak of disease. Rabies vaccine can be given any time of year because theres no peak season.
    • 3. Move the location of the vaccines on the horse. Give one vaccine on the left side of neck, one on the right hind leg, one on the left hind leg, and on the right side of the neck.
    • 4. Move away from some of the injectable vaccines, consider intranasal.
    • 5. Assess the horses environment and confirm if vaccine is necessary.
  101. The ____ vaccine doesn’t have an adjuvant so its likely to not cause a reaction.
    West Nile Virus
  102. What is Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis?
    • 1. Incriminate the possum with contaminated feces.
    • 2. Good management is to keep possum droppings out of the hay, feed, horse pastor so horse doesn't accidentally ingest.
    • 3. Early veterinary intervention is recommended because of difficulty of disease.
    • 4. Long incubation period.
    • 5. Early testing recommendations is doing a spinal tab before starting treatment.
    • 6. It’s an equine protozoan parasite and these kinds of vaccines are very hard to make.
    • 7. Once ingested the protozoal develops and migrates through the body. On occasions it migrates to the horses spinal cord and brain.
  103. Info on Strangles:
    • 1. Horses are more susceptible to Strangles in the Spring and Summer because they’re out doing shows.
    • 2. Highly infectious disease and can attack any time of the year.
    • 3. Etiology is Streptococcus equi.
    • 4. Etiology survives much better in the cold environments – Winter and Spring.
    • 5. If your horse survives active Strangles they will have an immunity for 5 years. 
    • 6. If you suspect your horse has Strangles then take their temperature twice a day. Move to quarantine if it develops a fever.
  104. Is fescue grass safe?
    • 1. Its has great nutrition but it fosters a fungus, an endophyte.
    • 2. Can create all kinds of problems for horses, especially pregnant mares.
    • 3. Mares past their due day wont make milk,  or colostrum if they contract fungus.
    • 4. If you suspect your pregnant mare is ingesting fescue grass then you should remove her from that pasture 30 – 60 days before she foals.
  105. Is there a way to treat barn dust as a respiratory issue for horses?
    • 1. Barn dust is just remnants of the outside accumulating inside.
    • 2. The same kind of skin testing that is done in humans is done on horses to try and to identify allergies.
    • 3. You can apply the same allergy testing to identify what allergies your horse is sensitive to, to try and minimize them in their environment, but can also desensitize them.
    • 4. A special allergy mixture can be made to give the horse to increase, in small increments, till you eventually desensitize them to something you cant take out of their environment. This process is not a vaccine but only using the horse immune system to work for us to develop his own protection against those allergens.
  106. West Nile Virus isn’t that prevalent anymore and people have the perception that the vaccine is not so neccissay anymore. How do you change their minds?
    • 1. Advice is to look at a species (humans) that is susceptible to West Nile Virus that don't have a vaccine.
    • 2. Horses are the 2nd most susceptible mammal to West Nile Virus.
    • 3. Last year there were over 2,500 human cases in the U.S., this number has risen 14% form the year before. This tells us that there a lot of West Nile infected birds and mosquitos out there.
    • 4. The number in horses infected with the virus has gone down and should be a testimony to encourage horse owners to continue vaccinating.
  107. Equine Infectious Anemia:
    • 1. A virus caused by a retrovirus.
    • 2. Its similar to human immunodeficiency disease, a.k.a AIDS.
    • 3. Coggins Test is used to diagnose for EIA.
  108. The Coggins Test is named after ________.
    Leroy Coggins, who invented the test.
  109. Lyme Disease:
    • 1. Currently no quine approved vaccine.
    • 2. Northeast is notorious for the disease.
    • 3. Tic borne disease.
    • 4. Horse are not as susceptible as other species.
    • 5. Some vets have used off labeled dog vaccines to vaccinate horses that live in heavily populated tic areas.
  110. Is it safe to give horses tetanus vaccine twice a year? Why don’t equines have a 10 year like humans?
    • 1. Some doctors believe an annual tetanus vaccine is adequate enough.
    • 2. If the horse risk to exposure is significant enough to justify then the vaccine is recommend every 6 months.
    • 3. Recommended that horses get a tetanus vaccine if they have a open wound from a cut, surgery, injury.
    • 4. Tetanus is usually always given because it comes in a combo vaccine.
  111. The main reason why tetanus is given to horse twice a year is because _________________.
    They are more susceptible to the bacteria than humans are.
  112. Tetanus is an organism that can live in the _______ of the horse.
    - GI tract
  113. Are vaccines more beneficial given separately rather in a combo?
    • 1. Not known how many vaccines is considered too much for a horse.
    • 2. Many killed vaccines carry adjuvants to stimulate the horses immune system.
    • 3. If you give to many separate vaccines with many different adjuvants it may over stimulate the horse immune system cause fever, anorexia, colic.
    • 4. Combos are good because they cover a number of diseases and have only one adjuvant. This decreases the amount of chemicals going into your animal.
  114. Does the size of the horse depend on the number of vaccine that are given?
    • 1. Must be mindful to vaccine reactions.
    • 2. Most reactions happen in miniature breeds, usually local reactions.
    • 3. Recommend to break up vaccines to prevent reactions. They also still require the same dose as a large horse, just break up the vaccines.
  115. Moon Blindness:
    • 1.  Life long illness. A type of uveitis.
    • 2.  Caused by a parasite, or leptospirosis. Comes from the urine of wild animals.
    • 3. Not infectious to other horses.
    • 4. When horses with moon blindness are vaccinated some will have flare ups. Doctors recommend these patients separate their vaccines and pretreat horse with Banamine or Flunixin before, during, and after giving vaccines.
  116. Monday Morning Sickness – Shivers:
    • 1. Caused by Azoturia.
    • 2. Found in draft horses and quarter horse.
    • 3. They have Equine Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy, their muscles do not utilze carbohydrates well.
    • 4. High fat diet recommended.
    • 5. Commercial feed is available. Can also add corn oil or vegetable oil to feed.
    • 6. To diagnose must get muscle biopsy.
    • 7. Diet is key.
  117. Most important keys in the Infectious Disease Control video:
    • 1. Vaccinating is key to controlling diseases.
    • 2. Get DVM involved in making a vaccine schedule depending on the life style.
    • 3. Mare and foals are special patients and require special needs.
    • 4. Have a protocol to controlling disease:
    •     vaccine schedule, quarantine, etc.
  118. Lameness:
    • - Manifested by asymmetry in movement.
    • - An indication of a structural or functional disorder in one or more limbs.
    • - Manifested during progression of movement or in the standing position.
  119. The 3 Ultimate Effects of Lameness:
    • 1) Restricted movement
    • 2) Reduced performance
    • 3) Abnormal gait
  120. Causes of Lameness:
    • - Infection
    • - Trauma
    • - Metabolic disturbances
    • - Congenital or acquired anomalies
    • - Circulatory and nervous disorders
  121. _____ is a specific form of lameness.
  122. A lameness exam is used to assess the ________ system in the horse.
  123. What are the 3 goals of lameness?
    • 1. Determine which limb is affected
    • 2. Differentiated between supporting and swinging-leg lameness.
    • 3. Establish musculoskeletal and/or neurologic components during lameness.
  124. 4 types of Lameness and their definition:
    • a) Supporting limb lameness: Horse is supporting weight on foot or when horse lands on it. caused by injury to bones, ligaments or nerves.
    • b) Swinging-leg lameness: Seen when leg is in motion. Causes are pathologic changes involving joint capsules, muscles, tendons, tendon sheaths or bursas.
    • c) Mixed lameness: Evident when limb is moving and when its supporting weight. 
    • d) Complementary lameness: Pain in limb will cause uneven distribution of weight on other limbs.
  125. Diagnosing Lameness Objectives:
    • a) History
    • b) Observe from a distance (stationary phase)
    • c) Observe from a distance (mobile phase)
    • d) Examine by palpation/manipulation
    • e) Radiology
    • f) Area and breed predisposition
  126. When obtaining patient history for lameness, you should speak to the person who _________________.
    Sees the horse on a daily basis.
  127. Questions to ask the client when obtaining history on a patient with lameness:
    • 1) Any inciting factors
    • 2) Changes in intensity & duration of problem.
    • 3) Response to treatments
    • 4) Time elapsed
    • 5) When is lameness noticed the most?
    • 6) Does horse stumble?
  128. Stationary Phase of observing a horse:
    • - What is the position of the head?
    • - Distribution of muscle?
    • - Symmetry between frontlimbs and hindlimbs?
    • - Any abnormalities in the stance?
    • - Hows the horses confirmation?
  129. What is confirmation in the horse?
    • - Angle of joints
    • - Bases narrow or wide
    • - Toe-in or toe-out
  130. Mobile Phase of observing from a distance:
    • - Notify of any deformities.
    • - Identify limbs or degree of lameness during movement.
    • - Observe horses walk, trot and gallop.
    • - Watch horses front, sides and rear.
    • - Look for head nodding, stride pace, joint flexion, foot placement, and symmetry.
  131. What is a Flexion Test?
    • - Evaluation of a limb after pressure has been applied to joint or group of joints in the leg for 30 seconds to 1.5 minutes. 
    • - After pressure is released, the animals movement is evaluated.
  132. ___% of forelimb lameness are in the carpus or below.
    ___% of the lamenesses occur in the forelimb.
    ___% of hindlimb lameness are in the hock or stifle.
    • - 95%
    • - 60-65%
    • - 80%
  133. 3 horse breeds prone to lameness:
    • a) Standardbred: Hindlimb lameness involved in 40% of lameness
    • b) Thoroughbred: Carpets, carpal fractures, injury to the matacarpophalangeal joint (traumatic arthritis), tendon and suspensory ligament injury to sesamoid injury.
    • c) Quarter Horse: Ringbone, fracture of the phalanges, sidebone and bone spavin.
  134. Why do we grade lameness?
    Grading standardizes the degree of lameness and makes record keeping easier and allows examiner to come back at a later time to assess the degree of improvement.
  135. Grading System for Lameness:
    • Grade I: Lameness not observed at walk, but seen in trot.
    • Grade II: Alteration in gait noted at a walk. No overt head movements associated with the lameness.
    • Grade III: Lameness obvious at a walk and a trot.
    • Grade IV: Non-weight bearing lameness.
  136. 60% of horses weight on _____.
  137. Indications of bandaging:
    • a) Prevent formations of hematomea, seromas and edema in a wound.
    • b) Reduce skin movement around wound.
    • c) Minimize wound contamination.
    • d) Maintain dressings and other meds on wound surface.
    • e) Prevent further injury to soft tissue.
    • f) Compress an open wound bed and suppress development of exuberant granulation tissue.
    • g) Protect would against mutilation by patient.
    • h) Immobilize limb and provide support.
    • i) Protect limb for transportation.
  138. Basic Concepts of Bandaging:
    • - Can be used as sole form of treatment following injury or treatment.
    • - Need to be applied carefully.
    • - Apply large enough bandages.
    • - Bandages should be thick enough.
    • - Lower limb bandages should be applied snugly and evenly.
    • - Pressure bandages should be well padded with 8-10 layers of cotton.
    • - Should be changed every 3-4 days on wound with minimal exudate.
    • - Leg bandages should never be secured in place with constricting ties.
    • - Should be changed and wound examined if there is a fever present.
    • - Should be removed by first cutting then pulling off in a downward fashion.
    • - Should not begin or end at a joint.
  139. Bandaging should always be started on the ___ aspect of leg and wrap in a ____ to ____ fashion so that the _____ tendons are always pulled ____.
    • - Medial
    • - Cranial to caudal
    • - Flexor tendons
    • - Medially
  140. How is an inner protective bandage used:
    • 1) Protective layer over incisions that have been sutured.
    • 2) As the first absorbent layer of an open wound.
  141. Materials needed for a Post operative bandage:
    • 1) Non-adhering bandage (Telfa pad)
    • 2) Wide gauze or foam air bandage
    • 3) Elastikon
  142. Materials needed for a Support Wrap Bandage:
    • a) Cotton
    • b) Elastikon
    • c) Vet wrap
  143. Bandage Types:
    • a) Post Operative Bandage
    • b) Support Wrap Bandage - Lower Limb
    • c) Elastikon/Vet Wrap
    • d) Carpal and Lower Forearm Bandage
  144. Elastikon/Vet Wrap should be wrapped in a _____ fashion around the fetlock joint.
    Figure eight
  145. Reasons you would need to place a catheter:
    • - Surgery
    • - Dehydration
    • - Infection
    • - Nutritional
    • - Shock
  146. Normal amount of fluid administered through a catheter:
    3 to 5 L
  147. Most commonly used catheter size:
    15 g
  148. Surgical scrub:
    • - 3 Betadine
    • - 3 Alcohol

    *Never touch same area twice.
  149. Gas Flow Through the Anesthetic Machine:
    • 1. Oxygen flows from the Otank.
    • 2. Through the flowmeter.
    • 3. To the vaporizer where it picks up anesthetic vapor.
    • 4. Then it flows into the plenum above the soda lime where it fills the rebreathing bag (2/3 full).
    • 5. The mixed gases go through the inhalation hose to the endotracheal tube to the animal.
    • 6. The animal exhales and the gases go back through the endotracheal tube to the exhalation hose to the soda lime canister.
    • 7. Excess gases are exhausted past the pop off valve, through the scavenging hose.
    • 8. The gases filter through the soda lime, where the CO2 is removed.
    • 9. The gases return to the plenum where they combine with fresh O2 and anesthetic vapor.
  150. Preoperative Physical Examination:
    • a) Auscultation of Heart
    • b) Palpation of the Peripheral Pulse
    • c) Mucous Membrane Color/Capillary Refill Time
    • d) Skin Turgor to Assess Hydration
    • e) Auscult Respiratory System
  151. Hematologic Evaluation:
    • a) PCV/TP
    • b) WBC Count
  152. Drugs such as _____ is not recommended.
  153. Anesthesia:
    • - Loss of feeling, or sensation.
    • - Results from pharmacological depression.
  154. Analgesia:
    Relief of pain without loss of consciousness.
  155. Sedation:
    • - Production of a sedative effect.
    • - Act of calming, decreasing excitability and irritability.
    • - Animal will remain standing.
  156. Drugs used for Chemical Restraint for Standing Surgery/Sedation:
    • a) Acepromazine Maleate (Ace)
    • - Sedative; no analgesia
    • - Decreases motor activity
    • - Causes hypertension and tachycardia
    • - Dosage: 0.02 - .04 mg/lb IV or IM

    • b) Xylazine HCL (Rompun)
    • - Sedative (hypnotic; causes sleep) with analgesic properties.
    • - Muscle relaxant
    • - Produces  transient bradycardia and decrease in respiratory rate.
    • - Dosage: 0.5 mg/lb IV or IM

    • c) Butorphanol Tartrate (Torbugasic)
    • - Provides analgesia alone.
    • - Combined with a sedative.
    • - Dosage: 0.01-0.03 mg/lb IV

    • d) Detomidine (Dormosdan)
    • Sedative (hypnotic) with analgesic properties.
    • - Dosage: 10-40 mg/lb IV
  157. Let all drugs take effect for at least ____ before stimulating.
    5 minutes
  158. Intravenous Anesthesia:
    • - Short procedures (ex: castration)
    • - Healthy, normal patients
    • - Drugs used:
    •   - Xylazine
    •        -(0.5 mg/lb IV) & Ketamine (1mg/lb)
    •        - Induction smooth
    •        - Last 15-20 minutes
    •        - Recovery smooth
    •   - Guaifenesin 
    •        - Muscle relaxant
    •        - Used in combo with other drugs
  159. Inhalation Anesthesia:
    • - Longer procedures
    • - General anethesia produced by the controlled administration of gaseous or volatile agents via the respiratory system.
  160. Advantages of Inhalation Anesthesia over Intravenous:
    • 1. Easier to control level of anesthetic depth.
    • 2. Used for longer surgical procedures (more than one hour)
  161. Disadvantages of Inhalation Anesthesia:
    • a) Requires use of anesthesia machine.
    • b) Requires source of oxygen.
    • c) Requires use of endotracheal tube.
  162. Pre-Medication used for Inhalation Anesthesia:
    • 1. Acepromazine
    • 2. Xylazine

    ** Follow up with Ketamine**
  163. Medications used for Anesthetic Induction for Inhalation Anesthesia:
    • 1. Thirobarbituates - short acting; suppress CNS
    • 2. Glyceryl Guaiacolate - alone or in combo with short acting thiobarbituates
  164. Ketamine:
    • - Special K
    • - Hypnotic
  165. 2 types of equine mouth speculums:
    • 1. Gunther Mouth Speculum
    • 2. Baer Mouth Speculum
  166. Endotracheal tubes used in equine range from ____ mm in diameter. Adult horses usually require ____ mm tubes.
    • - 10-30 mm
    • - 26-30 mm
  167. Anesthetics Commonly Used in Surgeries:
    • 1. Halothane
    • -depresses CNS and CV functions
    • 2. Isoflurance
    • -depresses CNS , CV & respiratory functions
    • 3. Nitrous Oxide
    • -used in combo with halothane; needs to be used with oxygen to prevent hypoxia
  168. Oxygenation:
    Act of process of having oxygen added.
  169. Clinical Stages of Anesthesia:
    • Stage One: Motor excitation or struggling and ataxia.
    • Stage Two: Involuntary excitement or delirium.
    • Stage Three: Further anesthetic depression occurs, consciousness and pain sensation are abolished and muscular relaxation occurs.
  170. Light Surgical:
    Deep Surgical:
    • Light - Nystagums, palpebral reflex (blinking) with steady respiration.
    • Deep - Complete loss of muscle tone with shallower respiration.