What is the active ingredient in Eqvalan Liquid and Paste?
What is the active ingredient in Panacur Granules and Paste?
What is the active ingredient in Anthelcide EQ Paste?
What is the active ingredient in Dichlorvos Granules Horse Wormer?
What is the active ingredient in Equizole A Liquid?
What is the active ingredient in Strongid Paste and Strongid - T?
What is the active ingredient in Strongid C?
Name two Anthelmerthic's that won't kill the larvae:
Panacur Granules and Strongid Paste
When there is a suspected Colic horse, you will evaluate what?
- Heart rate
- Respiratory rate
- Peripheral pulse
- Mucous membrane color
- Capillary refill time
- PCV/Total Protein
When performing a Colic evaluation on a horse, you would check the temperature in case it is:
- Pleuritis (pleuro pneumonia)
Respiratory Rate will increased in a Colic horse with:
- Metabolic acidosis
- Abdominal distention
Strength of peripheral pulse in a Colic horse will give you an assessment of the _______ function and ______.
- Cardiovascular function
- Tissue perfusion ( w/ weak pulse)
Mucous membrane changes associated with Endotoxic Shock divided in two stages:
- Vasodilation will causes mucous membrane to turn bright red.
- Capillary refill time faster than usual.
- Vasoconstriction causes mucous membrans to become dark red (injected), blue or muddy (toxic), or even pale if blood in shunted to other organs.
- Delayed capillary refill time with poor tissue perfusion in hypovolemia cases.
PCV will be ____ and total protein will be _____ in a colic horse.
Two procedures that can be done to evaluate a Colic horse:
- Nasogastric Tube Intubation
Nasogastric Tube Intubation:
- Needs to be done in all cases to prevent gastric rupture.
- The greater the volume of reflux, the more proximal the lesion.
- The color of the reflux will help you asses.
a) Yellowish Green - Presence of
reflux, originating distal to common
b) Reddish - Mucosal damage or
hemorrhage within the intestinal
a) Intestinal Divitalization
b) Intestine Necrosis
c) Fecal Peritonitis
a) Intestinal Divitalization: RBC and protein lost into the peritoneal fluid causing the fluid to become reddish in color and will have increased turbidity.
b) Intestine Necrosis: Fluid become darkened. (reddish-brown)
c) Fecal Peritonitis: Flakes of feed or ingesta in the peritoneal fluid is suggestive of gastric or intestinal rupture or inappropriate placement of the abdominocentesis needle.
The small intestine is ___ meters in length.
The large colon is ____ meters in length.
Equine Digestive Tract:
There is not one standard vaccine program that covers all horses. DVM’s do a “Disease Risk Assessment,” on every horse:
-Asses the situations and environments horse will be exposed to.
-Asses the risks and base vaccine schedule on that.
-Time of the year to start vaccines.
-What the horses are used for.
-Risk and consequence of the disease.
-Safety of vaccines.
Horse in the southeast have increased risk of Eastern Encephalitis and horses across the United States are susceptible to West Nile Virus. When should you vaccinate for these diseases?
Must start vaccinating for these viruses in the Spring and Summer.
American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) recommends you involve your DVM in ____________________.
The administering and monitoring of vaccines.
What is the significance and importance of a DVM involved with administering and monitoring of vaccines?
1) DVM should be your prime source of up to date information because its science based.
2) DVM will be able to tell you what diseases are prevalent in your area.
3) Notifies you of any outbreaks. This might require you to change your vaccination program.
4) Will notify you of available and new vaccines on the market.
5) Brings relief in knowing you the vaccine is being handled properly.
6) Possible reactions.
7) Good time to do a wellness exam too while getting vaccines done.
Teeth should be checked ______ a year.
Swelling of submandibular lymph nodes indicates possible ________.
Spinal cord disease.
DVM’s recommend horse owners invest in a stethoscope and get familiar with the sound of the ____, _____, and _____. Know what’s normal and abnormal.
Heart, lungs and gut.
Rapid _____ during colic is common and your DVM should be contacted.
Primary vaccines every horse should have annually, recommended by AAEP:
1) Eastern / Western Equine Encephilitis (mosquitos)
2) West Nile Virus (mosquitos)
3) Tetanus (lives in soil)
4) Rabies (wild animals)
Recommended vaccines for horses at risk of disease. These vaccines depend on what the horse is used for:
2) Equine Herpes
Name a vaccine that only requires one dose.
Intranasal West Nile vaccine.
Horse have _________ immunity at 10 -14 days after the 2nd vaccine dose.
How horses respond to vaccinations in percentage:
1) 10% of horses don’t respond.
2) 80% of horses respond like we expected them to.
3) 10% of horses respond very well.
Vaccinate mare with all core vaccines and any regional vaccines. Booster mare _____ before her foal is born along with annual core vaccines and any regional vaccines. Do this because this is the time period she is making _______. This will be the source of protection for her foal for the first _____ of life.
- 4-6 weeks
- antibody rich colostrum
- 3-5 months
What is the leading viral cause of abortions in pregnant mares?
Equine Herpes Virus
* Recommend she be vaccinated for EHV-1 at 5 months, 7 months, and 9 months of pregnancy.*
The foal must get colostrum within the first _____ of life.
Antibodies begin to drop in foal at _____ months. The new guidelines recommend waiting till foals are a little older before vaccinating them, start at ______ months old.
- 4-5 months
- 5-6 months
Recommend core vaccines to be given, a series of 3 doses, give the first 2 doses of eastern / western encephalitis, tetanus, rabies, west nile vaccines. Booster in 3 -4 weelks after primary and again in (the 3rd dose) 3 months.
2. Don’t let horse share same water bucket (most common source of infection) and stall.
3. Disinfect water buckets daily.
4. Don’t let them touch nose to nose
5. Every farm should have a quarantine area and procedure.
6. Disinfect new horse lead rope and halter in 1 part sodium hypochlorite to 3 parts water. Clean them off of any debris so bleach can activate.
7. Banamine given for pain control or to lower fever.
Making the decision on the number of vaccines and the way to administer them:
1. Don’t know the number of how many vaccines is considered too much at one time for a horse. There are guidelines you try to follow.
2. Try to limit the number of vaccines as best as you can. Ways to this is give Eastern / Western Encephalitis and West Nile vaccines at beginning of spring, the peak of disease. Rabies vaccine can be given any time of year because theres no peak season.
3. Move the location of the vaccines on the horse. Give one vaccine on the left side of neck, one on the right hind leg, one on the left hind leg, and on the right side of the neck.
4. Move away from some of the injectable vaccines, consider intranasal.
5. Assess the horses environment and confirm if vaccine is necessary.
The ____ vaccine doesn’t have an adjuvant so its likely to not cause a reaction.
West Nile Virus
What is Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis?
1. Incriminate the possum with contaminated feces.
2. Good management is to keep possum droppings out of the hay, feed, horse pastor so horse doesn't accidentally ingest.
3. Early veterinary intervention is recommended because of difficulty of disease.
4. Long incubation period.
5. Early testing recommendations is doing a spinal tab before starting treatment.
6. It’s an equine protozoan parasite and these kinds of vaccines are very hard to make.
7. Once ingested the protozoal develops and migrates through the body. On occasions it migrates to the horses spinal cord and brain.
Info on Strangles:
1. Horses are more susceptible to Strangles in the Spring and Summer because they’re out doing shows.
2. Highly infectious disease and can attack any time of the year.
3. Etiology is Streptococcus equi.
4. Etiology survives much better in the cold environments – Winter and Spring.
5. If your horse survives active Strangles they will have an immunity for 5 years.
6. If you suspect your horse has Strangles then take their temperature twice a day. Move to quarantine if it develops a fever.
Is fescue grass safe?
1. Its has great nutrition but it fosters a fungus, an endophyte.
2. Can create all kinds of problems for horses, especially pregnant mares.
3. Mares past their due day wont make milk, or colostrum if they contract fungus.
4. If you suspect your pregnant mare is ingesting fescue grass then you should remove her from that pasture 30 – 60 days before she foals.
Is there a way to treat barn dust as a respiratory issue for horses?
1. Barn dust is just remnants of the outside accumulating inside.
2. The same kind of skin testing that is done in humans is done on horses to try and to identify allergies.
3. You can apply the same allergy testing to identify what allergies your horse is sensitive to, to try and minimize them in their environment, but can also desensitize them.
4. A special allergy mixture can be made to give the horse to increase, in small increments, till you eventually desensitize them to something you cant take out of their environment. This process is not a vaccine but only using the horse immune system to work for us to develop his own protection against those allergens.
West Nile Virus isn’t that prevalent anymore and people have the perception that the vaccine is not so neccissay anymore. How do you change their minds?
1. Advice is to look at a species (humans) that is susceptible to West Nile Virus that don't have a vaccine.
2. Horses are the 2nd most susceptible mammal to West Nile Virus.
3. Last year there were over 2,500 human cases in the U.S., this number has risen 14% form the year before. This tells us that there a lot of West Nile infected birds and mosquitos out there.
4. The number in horses infected with the virus has gone down and should be a testimony to encourage horse owners to continue vaccinating.
Equine Infectious Anemia:
1. A virus caused by a retrovirus.
2. Its similar to human immunodeficiency disease, a.k.a AIDS.
3. Coggins Test is used to diagnose for EIA.
The Coggins Test is named after ________.
Leroy Coggins, who invented the test.
1. Currently no quine approved vaccine.
2. Northeast is notorious for the disease.
3. Tic borne disease.
4. Horse are not as susceptible as other species.
5. Some vets have used off labeled dog vaccines to vaccinate horses that live in heavily populated tic areas.
Is it safe to give horses tetanus vaccine twice a year? Why don’t equines have a 10 year like humans?
1. Some doctors believe an annual tetanus vaccine is adequate enough.
2. If the horse risk to exposure is significant enough to justify then the vaccine is recommend every 6 months.
3. Recommended that horses get a tetanus vaccine if they have a open wound from a cut, surgery, injury.
4. Tetanus is usually always given because it comes in a combo vaccine.
The main reason why tetanus is given to horse twice a year is because _________________.
They are more susceptible to the bacteria than humans are.
Tetanus is an organism that can live in the _______ of the horse.
- GI tract
Are vaccines more beneficial given separately rather in a combo?
1. Not known how many vaccines is considered too much for a horse.
2. Many killed vaccines carry adjuvants to stimulate the horses immune system.
3. If you give to many separate vaccines with many different adjuvants it may over stimulate the horse immune system cause fever, anorexia, colic.
4. Combos are good because they cover a number of diseases and have only one adjuvant. This decreases the amount of chemicals going into your animal.
Does the size of the horse depend on the number of vaccine that are given?
1. Must be mindful to vaccine reactions.
2. Most reactions happen in miniature breeds, usually local reactions.
3. Recommend to break up vaccines to prevent reactions. They also still require the same dose as a large horse, just break up the vaccines.
1. Life long illness. A type of uveitis.
2. Caused by a parasite, or leptospirosis. Comes from the urine of wild animals.
3. Not infectious to other horses.
4. When horses with moon blindness are vaccinated some will have flare ups. Doctors recommend these patients separate their vaccines and pretreat horse with Banamine or Flunixin before, during, and after giving vaccines.
Monday Morning Sickness – Shivers:
1. Caused by Azoturia.
2. Found in draft horses and quarter horse.
3. They have Equine Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy, their muscles do not utilze carbohydrates well.
4. High fat diet recommended.
5. Commercial feed is available. Can also add corn oil or vegetable oil to feed.
6. To diagnose must get muscle biopsy.
7. Diet is key.
Most important keys in the Infectious Disease Control video:
1. Vaccinating is key to controlling diseases.
2. Get DVM involved in making a vaccine schedule depending on the life style.
3. Mare and foals are special patients and require special needs.
4. Have a protocol to controlling disease:
vaccine schedule, quarantine, etc.
- Manifested by asymmetry in movement.
- An indication of a structural or functional disorder in one or more limbs.
- Manifested during progression of movement or in the standing position.
The 3 Ultimate Effects of Lameness:
1) Restricted movement
2) Reduced performance
3) Abnormal gait
Causes of Lameness:
- Metabolic disturbances
- Congenital or acquired anomalies
- Circulatory and nervous disorders
_____ is a specific form of lameness.
A lameness exam is used to assess the ________ system in the horse.
What are the 3 goals of lameness?
1. Determine which limb is affected
2. Differentiated between supporting and swinging-leg lameness.
3. Establish musculoskeletal and/or neurologic components during lameness.
4 types of Lameness and their definition:
a) Supporting limb lameness: Horse is supporting weight on foot or when horse lands on it. caused by injury to bones, ligaments or nerves.
b) Swinging-leg lameness: Seen when leg is in motion. Causes are pathologic changes involving joint capsules, muscles, tendons, tendon sheaths or bursas.
c) Mixed lameness: Evident when limb is moving and when its supporting weight.
d) Complementary lameness: Pain in limb will cause uneven distribution of weight on other limbs.
Diagnosing Lameness Objectives:
b) Observe from a distance (stationary phase)
c) Observe from a distance (mobile phase)
d) Examine by palpation/manipulation
f) Area and breed predisposition
When obtaining patient history for lameness, you should speak to the person who _________________.
Sees the horse on a daily basis.
Questions to ask the client when obtaining history on a patient with lameness:
1) Any inciting factors
2) Changes in intensity & duration of problem.
3) Response to treatments
4) Time elapsed
5) When is lameness noticed the most?
6) Does horse stumble?
Stationary Phase of observing a horse:
- What is the position of the head?
- Distribution of muscle?
- Symmetry between frontlimbs and hindlimbs?
- Any abnormalities in the stance?
- Hows the horses confirmation?
What is confirmation in the horse?
- Angle of joints
- Bases narrow or wide
- Toe-in or toe-out
Mobile Phase of observing from a distance:
- Notify of any deformities.
- Identify limbs or degree of lameness during movement.
- Observe horses walk, trot and gallop.
- Watch horses front, sides and rear.
- Look for head nodding, stride pace, joint flexion, foot placement, and symmetry.
What is a Flexion Test?
- Evaluation of a limb after pressure has been applied to joint or group of joints in the leg for 30 seconds to 1.5 minutes.
- After pressure is released, the animals movement is evaluated.
___% of forelimb lameness are in the carpus or below.
___% of the lamenesses occur in the forelimb.
___% of hindlimb lameness are in the hock or stifle.
3 horse breeds prone to lameness:
a) Standardbred: Hindlimb lameness involved in 40% of lameness
b) Thoroughbred: Carpets, carpal fractures, injury to the matacarpophalangeal joint (traumatic arthritis), tendon and suspensory ligament injury to sesamoid injury.
c) Quarter Horse: Ringbone, fracture of the phalanges, sidebone and bone spavin.
Why do we grade lameness?
Grading standardizes the degree of lameness and makes record keeping easier and allows examiner to come back at a later time to assess the degree of improvement.
Grading System for Lameness:
Grade I: Lameness not observed at walk, but seen in trot.
Grade II: Alteration in gait noted at a walk. No overt head movements associated with the lameness.
Grade III: Lameness obvious at a walk and a trot.
Grade IV: Non-weight bearing lameness.
60% of horses weight on _____.
Indications of bandaging:
a) Prevent formations of hematomea, seromas and edema in a wound.
b) Reduce skin movement around wound.
c) Minimize wound contamination.
d) Maintain dressings and other meds on wound surface.
e) Prevent further injury to soft tissue.
f) Compress an open wound bed and suppress development of exuberant granulation tissue.
g) Protect would against mutilation by patient.
h) Immobilize limb and provide support.
i) Protect limb for transportation.
Basic Concepts of Bandaging:
- Can be used as sole form of treatment following injury or treatment.
- Need to be applied carefully.
- Apply large enough bandages.
- Bandages should be thick enough.
- Lower limb bandages should be applied snugly and evenly.
- Pressure bandages should be well padded with 8-10 layers of cotton.
- Should be changed every 3-4 days on wound with minimal exudate.
- Leg bandages should never be secured in place with constricting ties.
- Should be changed and wound examined if there is a fever present.
- Should be removed by first cutting then pulling off in a downward fashion.
- Should not begin or end at a joint.
Bandaging should always be started on the ___ aspect of leg and wrap in a ____ to ____ fashion so that the _____ tendons are always pulled ____.
- Cranial to caudal
- Flexor tendons
How is an inner protective bandage used:
1) Protective layer over incisions that have been sutured.
2) As the first absorbent layer of an open wound.
Materials needed for a Post operative bandage:
1) Non-adhering bandage (Telfa pad)
2) Wide gauze or foam air bandage
Materials needed for a Support Wrap Bandage:
c) Vet wrap
a) Post Operative Bandage
b) Support Wrap Bandage - Lower Limb
c) Elastikon/Vet Wrap
d) Carpal and Lower Forearm Bandage
Elastikon/Vet Wrap should be wrapped in a _____ fashion around the fetlock joint.
Reasons you would need to place a catheter:
Normal amount of fluid administered through a catheter:
3 to 5 L
Most commonly used catheter size:
- 3 Betadine
- 3 Alcohol
*Never touch same area twice.
Gas Flow Through the Anesthetic Machine:
1. Oxygen flows from the O2 tank.
2. Through the flowmeter.
3. To the vaporizer where it picks up anesthetic vapor.
4. Then it flows into the plenum above the soda lime where it fills the rebreathing bag (2/3 full).
5. The mixed gases go through the inhalation hose to the endotracheal tube to the animal.
6. The animal exhales and the gases go back through the endotracheal tube to the exhalation hose to the soda lime canister.
7. Excess gases are exhausted past the pop off valve, through the scavenging hose.
8. The gases filter through the soda lime, where the CO2 is removed.
9. The gases return to the plenum where they combine with fresh O2 and anesthetic vapor.
Preoperative Physical Examination:
a) Auscultation of Heart
b) Palpation of the Peripheral Pulse
c) Mucous Membrane Color/Capillary Refill Time
d) Skin Turgor to Assess Hydration
e) Auscult Respiratory System
b) WBC Count
Drugs such as _____ is not recommended.
- Loss of feeling, or sensation.
- Results from pharmacological depression.
Relief of pain without loss of consciousness.
- Production of a sedative effect.
- Act of calming, decreasing excitability and irritability.
- Animal will remain standing.
Drugs used for Chemical Restraint for Standing Surgery/Sedation:
a) Acepromazine Maleate (Ace)
- Sedative; no analgesia
- Decreases motor activity
- Causes hypertension and tachycardia
- Dosage: 0.02 - .04 mg/lb IV or IM
b) Xylazine HCL (Rompun)- Sedative (hypnotic; causes sleep) with analgesic properties.
- Muscle relaxant
- Produces transient bradycardia and decrease in respiratory rate.
- Dosage: 0.5 mg/lb IV or IM
c) Butorphanol Tartrate (Torbugasic)
- Provides analgesia alone.
- Combined with a sedative.
- Dosage: 0.01-0.03 mg/lb IV
d) Detomidine (Dormosdan)
Sedative (hypnotic) with analgesic properties.
- Dosage: 10-40 mg/lb IV
Let all drugs take effect for at least ____ before stimulating.
- Short procedures (ex: castration)
- Healthy, normal patients
- Drugs used:
-(0.5 mg/lb IV) & Ketamine (1mg/lb)
- Induction smooth
- Last 15-20 minutes
- Recovery smooth
- Muscle relaxant
- Used in combo with other drugs
- Longer procedures
- General anethesia produced by the controlled administration of gaseous or volatile agents via the respiratory system.
Advantages of Inhalation Anesthesia over Intravenous:
1. Easier to control level of anesthetic depth.
2. Used for longer surgical procedures (more than one hour)
Disadvantages of Inhalation Anesthesia:
a) Requires use of anesthesia machine.
b) Requires source of oxygen.
c) Requires use of endotracheal tube.
Pre-Medication used for Inhalation Anesthesia:
** Follow up with Ketamine**
Medications used for Anesthetic Induction for Inhalation Anesthesia:
1. Thirobarbituates - short acting; suppress CNS
2. Glyceryl Guaiacolate - alone or in combo with short acting thiobarbituates
- Special K
2 types of equine mouth speculums:
1. Gunther Mouth Speculum
2. Baer Mouth Speculum
Endotracheal tubes used in equine range from ____ mm in diameter. Adult horses usually require ____ mm tubes.
- 10-30 mm
- 26-30 mm
Anesthetics Commonly Used in Surgeries:
-depresses CNS and CV functions
-depresses CNS , CV & respiratory functions
3. Nitrous Oxide
-used in combo with halothane; needs to be used with oxygen to prevent hypoxia
Act of process of having oxygen added.
Clinical Stages of Anesthesia:
Stage One: Motor excitation or struggling and ataxia.
Stage Two: Involuntary excitement or delirium.
Stage Three: Further anesthetic depression occurs, consciousness and pain sensation are abolished and muscular relaxation occurs.
Light - Nystagums, palpebral reflex (blinking) with steady respiration.
Deep - Complete loss of muscle tone with shallower respiration.