BIOL 107 Lab Midterm

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evander4
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BIOL 107 Lab Midterm
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2014-10-16 22:51:49
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BIOL 107
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BIOL 107 Lab Midterm
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  1. What are the 4 characteristics of chordate embryos on the lancelet?
    • 1. Dorsal hollow nerve cord
    • 2. Notochord (spine)
    • 3. Gill slits
    • 4. Post anal tail

  2. What is the embryological evidence for evolution between a human and chick embryo?
    1. Gill slits/pouches in both embryos, suggests a common ancestor

  3. What are the forelimb bones and how does function differ between different vertebrates?
    • 1. Humerus
    • 2. Radius, ulna
    • 3. Carpals
    • 4. Metacarpals
    • 5. Phalanges

  4. What are the bones of the horse hoof model and what climate changes account for hoof evolution?
    1. Horse hoof has really long phalange. As environment changed from jungle to plains, horses evolved to be taller to see over the grasses for food and predators

  5. How has the primate skull changed over time from chimp-like ancestors to humans
    1. Over time the angle of the forehead became closer to 90 deg, allowing for brain growth and development of the frontal lobe

  6. What environmental change led to humbles being better adapted to by becoming bipedal?
    • 1. Movement of tectonic plates changed jungle to plains
    • 2. With less food in the trees, early humans needed to walk on 2 legs to see over grass for food and to watch for predators
  7. What are the taxonomic domains?
    • 1. Archaea
    • 2. Bacteria
    • 3. Eukarya
  8. What are the 4 kingdoms (and their distinguishing features) in the domain eukarya?
    • 1. Plants: multicellular, autotrophs, photosynthesis
    • 2. Animals: multicellular, internal digestion, heterotrophs
    • 3. Fungi: mostly heterotrophs, external digestion
    • 4. Protista: mostly single celled, with true nucleus, heterotroph or autotroph, can be pathogenic
  9. What is the difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote?
    1. Eukaryotes have a true nucleus and membrane bound organelles, prokaryotes do not!
  10. What is the difference between filamentous, colonial, and solitary cyanobacteria?
    • 1. Filamentous: cells of cyanobacteria in strands

    • 2. Colonial: Sheath surrounds a group of several individual cells

    3. Solitary: individual cells
  11. What is the difference between autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria?
    • 1. Autotrophic: Gains carbon from within self (photosynthesis)
    • 2. Heterotrophic: Gains carbon from outside environment
  12. What are the 3 different shapes of bacteria?
    • 1. Coccus: round
    • 2. Bacillus: rod
    • 3. Spirillus: spiral
  13. What is a heterocyst and what does it do?
    • 1. Specialized cell of a Nostoc bacteria
    • 2. Performs nitrogen fixation, converting N2 to NH3. Allows N to able to react/bind with other organic material in the environment
  14. How many microns are in a mm?
    1mm=1000 microns
  15. What is the function of the nodules on the roots of the bean family?
    1. Nitrogen fixation!

  16. What is this, how does it move and how does it eat?
    • 1. Paramecium
    • 2. Cilia beats systematically to travel
    • 3. Cilia beats food into gullet/oral groove.
  17. What is this, how does it move and how does it eat?
    • 1. Euglena
    • 2. Flagella whips
    • 3. Photosynthesis and by moving food particles into gullet near flagella
  18. What is this, how does it move and how does it eat?
    • 1. Amoeba
    • 2. Pseudopodia
    • 3. Pseudopodia engulf food particles
  19. What is this and how does it reproduce?
    • 1. Spirogyra with spiral chloroplasts
    • 2. Reproduces through conjugation, connection of cells by "bridge" that transfers DNA
  20. What is this and why is it not classified as a plant?
    • 1. Kelp
    • 2. Multicellular protist, not a plant because it doesn't have specialized cells/tissues
  21. What are these?
    1. Diatoms
  22. How do fungi acquire their nutrition?
    • 1. External digestion
    • 2. This is why they make good decomposers
  23. What is this, what does it contain and what stabilizes it?
    • 1. Zygospore
    • 2. Contains haploid spores
    • 3. Supported by hyphae
  24. What phyla do these fungi belong to and how do they reproduce?
    • 1. Basidiomycota
    • 2. Gills on the underside of the cap contain basidia that produce spores
  25. What phylum does this fungi belong to and where are the spores contained?
    • 1. Morel - ascomycota
    • 2. sac-like asci contain spores
  26. What type of fungi, what is the mutualistic relationship, and what is the ecological importance?
    • 1. Lichen
    • 2. Mutualistic relationship with cyanobacteria or green algae (photosynthesis)
    • 3. Can live on rock and create soil, very sensitive to pollution, carries out nitrogen fixation
  27. What is ergot and what are its effects when ingested?
    • 1. Fungus that grows on grains
    • 2. Causes neurological disorders
    • 3. Derivation of LSD, causes hallucinations
  28. What is the domain, kingdom, and phylum of moss and ferns?
    • 1. Eukarya, plant, bryophytes
    • 2. Eukarya, plant, pteridophytes
  29. What is the gametophyte generation and sporophyte generation of moss?
    • 1. Gametophyte: haploid, green "leafy-ish", most prominent
    • 2. Sporophyte: diploid, capsule contains spores, relies on gametophyte for nutrients
  30. How are the spores of moss advanced over algae?
    1. They are resistant to drying out
  31. What is this?

    1. Moss antheridia (male)
  32. What is this?
    1. Moss archegonia (female)
  33. What is this and how is it commercially used?
    • 1. Sphagnum
    • 2. Peat moss used as insulation and soil conditioners
  34. What is this, where is the archegonium and antheridium?
    • 1. Fern gametophyte
    • 2. Archegonium is in the center near notch
    • 3. Antheridia on the leafy parts of heart
  35. What is this, where are the xylem and phloem located, what is the evolutional advantage ferns have over mosses?
    • 1. Rhizome cross section
    • 2. Phloem surrounds the larger xylem
    • 3. Because of the vascular tissue ferns are able to grow taller than mosses because nutrients can travel farther up the stem
  36. What are these and what do they contain?
    • 1. Sori: clusters of sporangia
    • 2. Sporangia contain haploid spores that will develop into fern gametophytes

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