Chapter 17

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Author:
Mingming
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286072
Filename:
Chapter 17
Updated:
2014-10-17 00:59:21
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Chapter 17 AnaPhy
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AnaPhy
Description:
The Respiratory System
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  1. converts food into chemical energy of ATP and produces large quantities of carbon dioxide gas
    Cellular Respiration
  2. two systems of the body that share the responsibility of supplying oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide
    • Cardiovascular system
    • Respiratory System
  3. the overall exchange of gasses between the atmosphere and the blood
    Respiration
  4. it is formed by a framework of cartilage and bone covered with skin and lined internally with mucous membrane
    nose
  5. the bridge of the nose is formed by the ___ that help and support the external nose and hold it in a fixed position
    nasal bones
  6. two openings on the undersurface of the nose
    nostrils or external nares
  7. forms the floor of the nasal cavity, separating the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
    hard palate of the mouth
  8. posteriorly, the internal nose connects with the pharynx via two openings called ___
    internal nares
  9. from the lacrimal or tear sacs that empty into the nose
    nasolacrimal ducts
  10. what are the paranasal sinuses
    • sphenoidal
    • frontal
    • ethmoidal
    • maxillary
  11. vertical partition that divides the internal and external nose into right and left nasal cavities
    nasal septum
  12. portions of the nasal cavities just inside the nostrilss
    vestibules
  13. detected for the sense of smell
    olfactory stimuli
  14. conchae is also known as
    turbinate bones
  15. narrow passageways/ subdivisions of the nasal cavity
    • superior meatus
    • middle meatus
    • inferior meatus
  16. located in the membrane that lines the superior meatus
    olfactory receptors
  17. cells that produce mucus
    goblet cells
  18. it is also called the throat
    pharynx
  19. how long is the pharynx
    5 inches or 13cm
  20. it begins in the internal nares and extends part way down the neck
    pharynx
  21. position of the pharyns
    posterior to the nasal and oral cavities; anterior the cervical vertebrae
  22. it is the passageway of both air and food and forms a resonating chamber for speech sounds
    pharynx
  23. divisions of the pharynx
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharnx
    • laryngopharynx
  24. uppermost potion of the pharynx which has four openings
    nasopharynx
  25. second portion of the pharynx which has only one opening
    oropharynx
  26. opening or the oropharynx that connects with the mouth
    fauces
  27. it is a portion of the pharynx which is the common passageway of food and air
    oropharynx
  28. it is the lowermost portion of the pharynx
    larynopharynx
  29. it connects with the esophagus posteriorly and with the larynx anteriorly
    laryngopharynx
  30. it is also called the voicebox
    larynx
  31. it is a very short passageway that connects the pharynx with the trachea
    larynx
  32. its walls are supported by ___ pieces of cartilage. Three pieces are paired  and three are single
    nine
  33. three single pieces of cartilage of he larynx
    • thyroid cartilage
    • epiglottis
    • cricoid cartilage
  34. it is also known as the Adam's apple
    throid cartilage
  35. it is a large, leaf-shaped piece of cartilage that lies at the tip of the larynx
    epiglottis
  36. part of the epiglottis that is attached to the thyroid cartilage
    the stem part
  37. part of the epiglottis that is unattached and is free to move up and down like a trap door
    leaf part
  38. it is the space between the vocal cords and the larynx
    glottis
  39. it is a ring of cartilage that forms the lowermost or interior walls of the larynx
    cricoid cartilage
  40. six paired cartilages of the larynx
    • paired arytenoid cartilages
    • corniculate cartilages
    • cuneiform cartilages
  41. ladle shaped and attached to the vocal cords and laryngeal muscles. They move the vocal cords
    paired arytenoid cartilages
  42. cone-shaped paired cartilages of the larynx
    corniculate cartilages
  43. rod-shaped paired cartilages of the larynx
    cuneiform cartilages
  44. two pairs of folds in the larynx
    • vestibular folds
    • vocal folds
  45. upper pair of folds or the false vocal cords
    vestibular folds
  46. lower pair of folds or the true vocal cords
    vocal folds
  47. it is also referred to as the windpipe
    trachea
  48. the trachea is ___ inches in length and about ___ inch in diameter
    • 4.5
    • 1
  49. it is found anterior to the esophagus and extends from the cricoid cartilage of the larynx to the 5th thoracic vertebra
    trachea
  50. it divides into the right and left bronchi
    trachea
  51. they beat upward and move the mucus dust package to the throat for elimination from the body
    cilia
  52. it is an incision into the trachea creating a new opening for air to enter
    tracheostomy
  53. bronchus that goes to the right lung
    right primary bronchus
  54. bronchus that goes to the left lung
    left primary pronchus
  55. bronchus that is more vertical, shorter and wider than the other
    right primary bronchus
  56. on entering the lungs, the primary bronchi divide to form smaller bronchi called ___
    secondary or lobar bronchi
  57. the right lung has ___ lobes and the left lung has ___ lobes
    • three
    • two
  58. the secondary or lobular bronchi branch into ___
    tertiary or segmented bronchi
  59. the tertiary or segmented bronchi branch into ___
    bronchioles
  60. bronchioles branch into ___
    terminal bronchioles
  61. branching is commonly referred to as ___
    bronchial tree
  62. they are paired, cone-shaped organs located in and filling the pleural divisions of the thoracic cavity
    lungs
  63. serous membrane that enclose and protect each lung
    pleural membrane
  64. outer layer of the pleural membrane that attaches the lung to the thoracic cavity
    parietal pleura
  65. inner layer of the pleural membrane that covers the lungs
    visceral pleura
  66. a small space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura that contains a lubricating fluid
    pleural cavity
  67. prevents friction between the visceral and parietal pleura and allows them to slide past each other
    pleural fluid
  68. inflammation of the pleural cavity and is very painful
    plueritis
  69. **note**
    • the right lung has three lobes and is thicker and broader than the left lung. it is also a bit shorter than the left because the diaphragm is higher on the right side, as it must make room for the liver that is found below
    • the left lung is thinner, longer and narrower than the right
  70. it is the segment of the lung tissue that each tertiary or segmental bronchi supplies
    bronchopulmunary segment
  71. small compartments of segments
    lobules
  72. the terminal bronchioles subdivide into microscopic branches called ___
    respiratory bronchioles
  73. respiratory bronchioles further subdivide into ___
    2 to 11 alveolar ducts or atria
  74. it is a cup-shaped or grapelike outpuching
    alveolus
  75. two or more alveoli hat share a common opening
    alveolar sacs
  76. membrane through which respiratory gasses move
    alveolar-capillary or respiratory membrane
  77. fluid concising of a mixture of lipoproteins
    surfactant
  78. helps prevent the alveoli from collapsing
    surfactant
  79. three basic processes of respiration
    • ventilation or breathing
    • external respiration
    • internal respiration
  80. movement of air between the atmosphere and the lungs
    ventilation or breathing
  81. two phases of ventilation
    • inhalation
    • exhalation
  82. inspiration to move air into the lungs
    inhalation
  83. expiration to move air out of the lungs
    exhalation
  84. exchange of gasses between the lungs and the blood
    external respiration
  85. exchange of gasses between the blood and the body cells
    internal respiration
  86. the PCOin a capillary blood is ___
    45 mmHg
  87. the PCOin the alveolar air is ___
    40 mmHg
  88. the POin the cappilary blood is ___
    40 mmHg
  89. the POin the alveolar air is ___
    104 mmHg
  90. it is the lung volume that is the sum of two or more of four primary non-overlapping lung volumes
    Lung capacity
  91. it is the volume of gas in the lungs at the end of normal tidal volume exhalation
    functional residual capacity
  92. it is equal to the residual volume plus the expiratory reserve volume
    functional residual capacity
  93. it is the maximum volume of gas that can be inhaled from the end of a resting exhalation
    inspiratory capacity
  94. it is equal to the sum of the tidal volume and the inspiratory reserve volume
    inspiratory capacity
  95. it is the volume of gas in the lungs at the end of maximum inspiration
    total lung capacity
  96. it is equals the vital capacity and residual capacit
    total lung capacity
  97. it is the maximum volume of air that can be expelled at the normal rate of exhalation
    vital capacity
  98. it is equals the inspiratory reserve volume plus the tidal volume plus the expiratory reserve volume
    vital capacity

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