Bio Word Bank Practical 2

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Bio Word Bank Practical 2
2014-10-17 04:14:27
Word Bank Practical 2
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  1. lipid storage cells
  2. specialized areolar tissue rich in stored fat
    Adipose tissue-
  3. that part of a cell or tissue which, in general,
    faces and open space
    Apical Surface
  4. release of a substance along with the apical portion of the cell
    Apocrine Secretion
  5. programed cell death
  6. star-shaped cell in the central nervous system that regulates ions and uptake and/or breakdown of some neurotransmitters and contributes to the formation of the blood-brain barrier
  7. a type of connective tissue proper that shows little specialization with cells dispersed in the matrix.
    Areolar / Loose Connective Tissue
  8. smooth muscle that is activated in response to external stimuli that pull on hair follicles and make the hair ‘stand up’.
    Arrector pilus (pili) muscle
  9. thick extracellular layer that lies underneath epithelial cells and separates them from other tissues.  It is a mixture of glycoproteins and collagen, provides an attachment site for the
    epithelium, separating it from underlying  connective tissue. The basal lamina attaches to a reticular lamina, which is secreted by the underlying connective tissue, forming a basement membrane that helps hold it all together.
    Basal Lamina
  10. in epithelial tissue, a thin layer of fibrous material that anchors the epithelial tissue to the underlying connective tissue; made up of the basal lamina and reticular lamina.
    Basement Membrane
  11. transitional phase marking the end of the anagen phase of the hair growth cycle
  12. heart muscle, under involuntary control. Composed of striated cells that attach to form fibers, each cell contains a single nucleus, contracts autonomously.
    Cardiac Muscle
  13. cells of the cartilage
  14. Latin for eyelash- is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.  Cilia are slender  protuberances that project from the much large cell body. Motile Cilia found in the lining of the trachea (windpipe), where they sweep mucus and dirt out of the lungs that beat in
    coordinated waves.  Women also in the
    fallopian tubes to move the ovum from the ovary to the uterus.
    Cilia (singular= Cilium)
  15. flexible fibrous proteins that give connective tissue tensile strength
    Collagen Fiber
  16. rectangular, taller than it is wide
  17. type of tissue that serves to hold in place, connect, and integrate the body´s organs and system
    Connective Tissue
  18. boxy, as wide as it is tall
  19. in hair, the second or middle layer of the keratinocytes originating from the hair matrix, as seen in a cross-section of the hair bulb
  20. in hair, the outermost layer of keratinocytes originating from the hair matrix
  21. connective tissue proper that contains many fibers that provide both elasticity and protection. Contains more collagen fibers than does loose connective tissue.
    Dense Connective Tissue
  22. fibers are parallel to each other, enhancing tensile strength and resistance to stretching in the direction of the fiber orientations. Ligaments and tendons are made of dense regular connective tissue, but in ligaments not
    all fibers are parallel. Dense regular elastic tissue contains elastin fibers in addition to collagen fibers, which allows the ligament to return to its original length after stretching. The ligaments in the vocal folds and between
    the vertebrae in the vertebral column are elastic.
    Dense irregular connective tissue
  23. extension of the papillary layer of the dermis that increases surface contact between the epidermis and dermis
    Dermal Papillae aka Dermal Papilla
  24. layer of skin between the epidermis and hypodermis, composed mainly of connective tissue and containing blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, and other structurs
  25. Structure that forms an impermeable junction between cells.
  26. is a circumscribed channel leading from an exocrine gland or organ
  27. type of sweat gland that is common throughout the skin surface; it produces a hypotonic sweat for thermoregulation
    Eccrine Sweat Gland
  28. type of cartilage, with elastin as the major protein, characterized by rigid support as well as elasticity.
    Elastic Cartilage
  29. fibrous protein within connective tissue that contains a high percentage of the protein elastin that allows the fibers to stretch and return to original size. / Fibers made of the protein elastin that increase the elasticity of the dermis.
    Elastic fiber
  30. clear protein-bound lipid found in the stratum lucidum that is derived from keratohyalin and helps to prevent water loss.
  31. group of cells that release chemical signals into the intercellular fluid to be picked up and transported to their target organs by blood
    Endocrine Gland
  32. tissue that lines vessels of the lymphatic and cardiovascular system, made up of simple squamous epithelium.
  33. outermost tissue layer of the skin
  34. type of tissue that serves primarily as a covering or lining of body parts, protecting the body; it also functions in absorption, transport, and secretion.
    Epithelial Tissue
  35. group of epithelial cells that secrete substances though ducts that open to the skin or to internal body surfaces that lead to the exterior of the body.
    Exocrine Gland
  36. most abundant cell type in connective tissue, secretes protein fibers and matrix into the extracellular space
  37. tough form of cartilage, made of thick bundles of collagen fibers embedded in chondroitin sulfate ground substance.
  38. allows cytoplasmic communications to occur between cells.
    Gap Junction
  39. unicellular gland found in columnar epithelium that secretes mucous
    Goblet Cell
  40. fluid or semi-fluid portion of the matrix
    Ground substance
  41. keratinous filament growing out of the  epidermis the bulb structure at the base of the hair root that surrounds the dermal papilla.
  42. cavity or sac from which hair originates
    Hair follicle
  43. chemical compound released by mast cells in response to injury that causes vasodilation and endothelial permeability.
  44. microscopic study of tissue architecture, organization, and function.
  45. Most common type of cartilage, smooth and made of short collagen fibers embedded in a chondroitin sulfate ground substance.
    Hyaline Cartilage
  46. connective tissue connecting the integument to the underlying bone and muscle.
  47. thickened layer of stratum comeum that lies below the free edge of the nail
  48. type of structural protein that give skin, hair, and nails its hard, water-resistant properties
  49. small spaces in bone or cartilage tissue that cells occupy
    Lacunae (Singular = lacuna)
  50. used to describe numerous plate or disc-like structures at both a tissue and cellular level
    Lamellae (singular = lamella)
  51. one of four major types of mechanoreceptors which are nerve ending in the skin responsible for sensitivity to vibration and pressure.  Lamllar corpuscles are also found in the pancreas, where they detect vibration and possible very low frequency sounds.  They are rapidly adapting (phasic) receptors that detect gross pressure changes and vibrations in the skin. Any deformation in the corpuscle cause action potential (by opening pressure-sensitive sodium ion channels in the axon membrane.
    Lamellar / Pacinian Corpuscles
  52. areolar / loose connective tissue underlying a mucous membrane.
    Lamina Propria
  53. Type of connective tissue proper that shows little specialization with cells dispersed in the matrix
    Loose / Areolar Connective Tissue
  54. extracellular material which is produced by cells embedded in it, containing ground substance and fibers.
  55. cell found in the stratum basale of the epidermis that produces the pigment melanin.
  56. embryonic tissue from which connective tissue cells derive
  57. middle embryonic germ layer from which connective tissue, muscle tissue,and some epithelial tissue derive.
  58. simple squamous epithelial tissue which covers the major body cavities and is the epithelial portion of serous membranes.
  59. They are cylindrical apical surface extensions of the plasma membrane of
    the mucosa’s epithelial cells, and are supported by microfilaments within those
    cells. Although their small size makes it difficult to see each microvillus,
    their combined microscopic appearance suggests a mass of bristles, which is
    termed the brush border. Fixed to the surface of the microvilli membranes are
    enzymes that finish digesting carbohydrates and proteins. There are an estimated 200 million microvilli per square millimeter of small intestine, greatly expanding the surface area of the plasma membrane and thus greatly enhancing absorption
  60. specialized loose connective tissue present in the umbilical cord
    Mucous Connective Tissue
  61. tissue membrane that is covered by protective mucous and lines tissue exposed to the outside environment.
    Mucus Membrane
  62. type of tissue that is capable of contracting
    and generating tension in response to simulation; produces movement.
    Muscle Tissue
  63. Layer of lipid inside some neuroglial cells that wraps around the axon of some neurons
  64. Muscle Cells
  65. type of tissue that is capable of sending and receiving impulses through electrochemical signals.
    Nervous Tissue
  66. supportive neural cells
    Neuroglia (glial cells)
  67. excitable neural cell that transfer nerve impulses.
  68. is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple
    long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome. The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression—the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane
    that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nucleoskeleton (which includes nuclear
    lamina), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like
    the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole. Because the nuclear membrane is impermeable to large molecules, nuclear pores are required that regulate nuclear transport of molecules across the envelope. The pores cross both nuclear membranes, providing a channel through which larger molecules must be actively transported by carrier proteins while allowing free movement of small molecules and ions. Movement of large molecules such as proteins and RNA through the pores is required for
    both gene expression and the maintenance of chromosomes. The interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound sub compartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of sub-nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. The
    best-known of these is the nucleolus, which is mainly involved in the assembly of ribosomes. After being produced in the nucleolus,  ribosomes are exported to the cytoplasm where they translate mRNA.
    Nucleus or Nuclei
  69. neuroglial cell that produces myelin in the brain
  70. cell responsible for forming new bone
  71. cell responsible for resorbing bone
  72. basic structural unit of compact bone; made of concentric layers of calcified matrix.
    Osteon (aka Haversian System)
  73. Primary cell in mature bone; responsible for maintaining the matrix
  74. uncalcified bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts.
  75. superficial layer of the dermis, made of loose, areolar connective tissue.  It is made of loose, areolar connective tissue, which means the collagen and elastin fibers of this layer form a loose mesh. This superficial layer of the  dermis projects into the stratum basale of the epidermis to form finger-like dermal papillae. Within the papillary layer are fibroblasts, a small number of fat cells (adipocytes), and an abundance of small blood vessels. In addition, the papillary layer contains phagocytes, defensive cells that help fight bacteria or other infections that have breached the skin. This layer also contains lymphatic capillaries, nerve fibers, and touch receptors called the Meissner corpuscles.
    Papillary dermis / layer
  76. tissue that consists of a single layer of  irregularly shaped and sized cells that give the appearance of multiple layers; found in the ducts of certain glands and the upper respiratory tract (trachea) and ducts of the male reproduction system (Epididymis- in scrotum coiled portion of the duct which
    carries sperm from testis to the urethra).
    Pseudostratified Columnar epithelium
  77. deeper layer of the dermis; it has a  reticulated appearance due to the presence of abundant collagen and elastin fibers.  It composed of dense, irregular connective 
    tissue. This layer is well vascularized and has a rich sensory and sympathetic nerve supply. The reticular layer appears reticulated  (netlike) due to a tight meshwork of fibers. Elastin fibers provide some elasticity to the skin, enabling movement. Collagen fibers provide structure and tensile strength, with
    strands of collagen extending into both the papillary layer and the hypodermis. In  addition, collagen binds water to keep the skin hydrated. Collagen injections and Retin-A creams help restore skin turgor by either  introducing collagen externally or stimulating blood flow and repair of the dermis, respectively.
    Reticular dermis /layer
  78. fine fibrous protein, made of collagen subunits, which cross-link to form supporting 'nets' within connective tissue
    Reticular fiber
  79. matrix containing collagen and elastin secreted by connective tissue; a component to the basement membrane.
    Reticular lamina
  80. type of loose connective tissue that provides a supportive framework to soft organs, such as lymphatic tissue, spleen, and the liver.
    Reticular Tissue
  81. neuroglial cell that produces myelin in the peripheral nervous system
    Schwann Cell
  82. type of oil gland found in the dermis all over the body and helps to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair by secreting sebum.
    Sebaceous Gland
  83. type of tissue membrane that lines body cavities and lubricates them with serous fluid.
    Serous Membrane
  84. tissue that consists of a single layer of flat scale-like cells; promotes rapid diffusion and filtration across surface. The alveoli of lungs
    where gases diffuse, segments of kidney tubules, and the lining of capillaries are also made of simple squamous epithelial tissue- (lungs, Kidney, Endothelium [lining of blood vessels] and Mesothelium [lining of major body cavities])
    Simple squamous epithelium
  85. tissue that consists of a single layer of cube-shaped cells; promotes secretion and absorption in ducts and tubules. Simple cuboidal epithelia are observed in the lining of the kidney tubules and in the ducts of glands.
    Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
  86. tissue that consists of a single layer of column-like cells; promotes secretion and absorption in tissues and organs. Simple columnar epithelium forms the lining of some sections of the digestive system (stomach, Small intestine) and parts of the female reproductive tract (uterus and fallopian
    tubes). Ciliated columnar epithelium is composed of simple columnar epithelial
    cells with cilia on their apical surfaces. These epithelial cells are found in the lining of the fallopian tubes and parts of the respiratory system, where the beating of the cilia helps remove particulate matter
    Simple Columnar Epithelium
  87. usually attached to bone, under voluntary control, each cell is a fiber that is multinucleated and striated.
    Skeletal Muscle
  88. under involuntary control, moves internal
    organs, cells contain a single nucleus, are spindle-shaped, and do not appear
    striated; each cell is a fiber.
    Smooth Muscle
  89. flattened and thin
  90. tissue that consists of multiple layers of cells with the most apical being flat scale-like cells; protects surfaces from abrasion and protection.  Too thick for efficient transport of materials (neither secretory nor absorptive).  Outer layer may be either keratinized or nonkeratinized on wet, mucous surfaces. (ex: skin, Cornea, Esophagus, cheek)
    Stratified Squamous Epithelium
  91. tissue that consists of two or more layers of cube-shaped cells, found in some ducts.
    Stratified Cuboidal epithelium
  92. tissue that consists of two or more layers of column-like cells, contains glands and found in some ducts.
    Stratified Columnar Epithelium
  93. deepest layer of the epidermis, made of epidermal stem cells.
    Stratum basale (Germinatum)
  94. Most superficial layer of the epidermis
    Stratum Corneum
  95. layer of the epidermis superficial to the stratum spinosum
    Stratum Granulosum
  96. layer of the epidermis superficial to the stratum spinosum
    Stratum lucidum
  97. layer of the epidermis superficial to the stratum basale, characterized by the presence of desmosomes.
    Stratum Spinosum
  98. alignment of parallel actin and myosin filaments which form a banded pattern.
  99. type of connective tissue that provides strength to the body and protects soft tissue.
    Supportive Connective Tissue
  100. Connective tissue membrane that lines the cavities of freely movable joints, producing synovial fluid for lubrication.
    Synovial Membrane
  101. resting phase of the hair growth cycle initiated with catagen and terminated by the beginning of a new anagen phase of hair growth.
  102. embryonic cells that have the ability to  differentiate into any type of cell and organ in the body.
  103. form of stratified epithelium found in the walls of the urinary tract, characterized by an apical layer of cells that change shape in response to the presence of urine. (ex: renal pelvis)
    Transitional epithelium aka Urothelium
  104. three different types Simple TG, Simple Tubular Coiled Gland, and Compound Tubular Gland.
    Tubular Gland
  105. compound that aids absorption of calcium and
    phosphates in the intestine to improve bone health.
    Vitamin D
  106. skin condition in which melanocytes in certain areas lose the ability to produce melanin, possible due an autoimmune reaction that leads to loss of color in patches.