Bio Ex 3

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KinjoSushi
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286083
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Bio Ex 3
Updated:
2014-10-17 03:29:43
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Bio
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  1. The respiratory system functions to ________ with
    the environment and also to produce ________.
    exchange gases, sounds
  2. At the end of every ________ is a cluster of ________,
    where gas exchange takes place.
    bronchiole, alveoli
  3. In the diagram above, ________ must be released over
    the inner surface of the sac-like
    structures to reduce surface tension.
    surfactants
  4. Air spaces in the skull called the ________ and
    ________ carry fluid away from the eyes and drain into the nasal cavity.
    sinuses, tear ducts
  5. The lower pharynx serves as a passageway for both the
    ________ and ________ systems.
    digestive, respiratory
  6. It is impossible to talk while swallowing because the
    ________ blocks the opening to the lower respiratory tract, routing food to the
    esophagus instead of the ________.
    epiglottis, larynx
  7. Sound results from the ________ of the vocal cords as
    air passes through the larynx.
    vibration
  8. During the cough reflex, the trachea ________ slightly
    to increase the velocity of air movement.
    constricts
  9. Tobacco smoke contains chemicals that ________ the
    production of mucus and ________ the activity of cilia in the respiratory
    system
    increase, decrease
  10. The exchange of gases in the lungs occurs between the
    alveoli and the ________ capillaries.
    pulmonary
  11. The muscles involved in respiration include the
    ________ muscles located between the ribs and the ________ located between the
    thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity.
    intercostal, diaphragm
  12. The amount of air that enters and leaves the lungs
    with each breath is the ________.
    tidal volume
  13. The enzyme that catalyzes the production of carbonic acid
    from carbon dioxide and water is

    ________.
    carbonic anhydrase
  14. The respiratory center, which determines breathing
    rate, is located in the ________ of the brain.
    medulla oblongata
  15. Receptors that respond to a decrease in the partial
    pressure of oxygen in the blood are the ________ and ________ bodies.
    carotid, aortic
  16. Bacteria are classified as ________ because they are
    made up of cells that do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
    prokaryotic
  17. Microorganisms and cellular debris are removed from
    lymph by the ________ and from blood by the ________
    lymph nodes, spleen
  18. ________ cells prime the immune system to become
    active if an antigen enters the body a second time.
    Memory
  19. Inflammation generally results when tissues become
    damaged and ________ cells respond by releasing histamine.
    mast
  20. Chemicals released by macrophages that cause the onset
    of a fever are called ________.
    pyrogens
  21. Cell-mediated
    immunity involves the activity of ________ lymphocytes
    T
  22. The unique set of proteins located on the surface of
    cells that distinguish one organism from another are the ________.
    major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins
  23. Plasma cells and memory cells are types of ________
    lymphocytes; both types of cells secrete proteins called ________ as part of
    the immune response.
    B, antibodies
  24. The only T lymphocyte that directly attacks and
    destroys other cells is the ________ T cell.
    cytotoxic (killer or T8)
  25. Drugs that kill bacteria are known as ________.
    antibiotics
  26. T helper cells release ________, proteins that
    stimulate the activity of other T cells and macrophages; these chemicals
    stimulate inflammation as well.
    lymphokines
  27. Following transplant surgery, a patient is given
    ________ drugs that block the action of the immune response against the
    transplanted organ
    immunosuppressive
  28. A severe allergic reaction (difficulty in breathing,
    fall in blood pressure, severe stomach cramps) is known as ________.
    anaphylactic shock
  29. A condition that results when the immune system
    produces antibodies and cytotoxic T cells against its own cells is a(n)
    ________ disorder.
    autoimmune
  30. The main cell of the immune system targeted by HIV is
    the ________.
    T helper cell
  31. Smooth muscle, in the form of ________ , is frequently
    located where arterioles meet capillaries.
    precapillary sphinctors
  32. Contraction of smooth muscle in the wall of arterioles
    results in ________.
    vasoconstriction
  33. ) The smallest arteries are called ________; the
    smallest veins are called ________.
    arterioles, venules
  34. The atrioventricular valves are supported by
    connective tissue strands called ________, which prevent the valves from
    everting.
    chordae tendineae
  35. ________ prevent the backflow of blood, in veins
    Valves
  36. Deoxygenated blood leaving the right side of the heart
    next passes through the ________

    circuit,
    where the blood is reoxygenated
    pulmonary
  37. The two upper chambers of the heart are called
    ________; the two lower chambers of the heart are called ________.
    atria, ventricles
  38. The heart receives oxygen and nutrients from blood
    transported by the ________ arteries.
    coronary
  39. The force exerted by blood on the wall of a blood
    vessel is known as ________.
    blood pressure
  40. Spontaneous contractions of the heart muscle begin in
    the ________.
    sinoatrial node
  41. The electrical signal causing contraction of the heart
    is carried from the atrioventricular bundle to the myocardium of the ventricles
    by ________ fibers.
    Purkinje
  42. A record of the electrical
    impulses characteristic of the cardiac conduction system is known as a(n)
    ________.
    electrocardiogram
  43. When baroreceptors are stretched, nerve impulses from
    these receptors will ultimately cause a(n) ________ in cardiac output
    decrease
  44. The amount of blood leaving the heart with every
    contraction is known as ________.
    stroke volume
  45. The ________ division of the nervous system causes the
    rate of heart contraction to increase
    sympathetic
  46. The fluid portion of blood is known as blood ________;
    this portion constitutes approximately ________% of the total blood volume.
    plasma, 55
  47. The osmotic balance between blood and interstitial
    fluid is maintained by plasma proteins called ________.
    albumins
  48. Hemoglobin is most likely to release oxygen to tissues
    when the pH of tissues is ________ and the temperature is ________.
    low, high
  49. Cells located in red bone marrow that give rise to
    platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells are called ________ cells.
    stem
  50. The hormone, ________, secreted by the ________,
    stimulates the production of red blood cells when the level of oxygen in the
    body decreases
    erythropoietin, kidney
  51. The color changes associated with a healing bruise can
    be attributed to the breakdown of heme groups to ________.
    bilirubin
  52. T lymphocytes mature in the ________ gland
    thymus
  53. "Granular" and "agranular"
    describe types of ________ blood cells
    white
  54. The swelling, itching, and redness associated with
    injury to a tissue is known as the ________ response.
    inflammatory
  55. Platelets are actually cytoplasmic and cell membrane
    pieces of ________.
    megakaryocytes
  56. Fragments of cells that are important in blood
    clotting are ________.
    platelets
  57. Vascular
    spasm, formation of a platelet plug, and coagulation are the three stages of

    ________.
    hemostasis
  58. Cell surface proteins that are foreign to the body and
    therefore cause a response from the immune system are known as ________.
    antigens
  59. Proteins produced by the immune system in response to
    the presence of an antigen are known as ________.
    antibodies
  60. In order to prevent the onset of hemolytic disease of
    the newborn, an Rh-negative
    woman, pregnant with an Rh+
    child, can be given ________ during pregnancy
    Rh antibodies (RhoGAM)

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