Bio Ex 3

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Bio Ex 3
2014-10-17 03:29:43

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  1. The respiratory system functions to ________ with
    the environment and also to produce ________.
    exchange gases, sounds
  2. At the end of every ________ is a cluster of ________,
    where gas exchange takes place.
    bronchiole, alveoli
  3. In the diagram above, ________ must be released over
    the inner surface of the sac-like
    structures to reduce surface tension.
  4. Air spaces in the skull called the ________ and
    ________ carry fluid away from the eyes and drain into the nasal cavity.
    sinuses, tear ducts
  5. The lower pharynx serves as a passageway for both the
    ________ and ________ systems.
    digestive, respiratory
  6. It is impossible to talk while swallowing because the
    ________ blocks the opening to the lower respiratory tract, routing food to the
    esophagus instead of the ________.
    epiglottis, larynx
  7. Sound results from the ________ of the vocal cords as
    air passes through the larynx.
  8. During the cough reflex, the trachea ________ slightly
    to increase the velocity of air movement.
  9. Tobacco smoke contains chemicals that ________ the
    production of mucus and ________ the activity of cilia in the respiratory
    increase, decrease
  10. The exchange of gases in the lungs occurs between the
    alveoli and the ________ capillaries.
  11. The muscles involved in respiration include the
    ________ muscles located between the ribs and the ________ located between the
    thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity.
    intercostal, diaphragm
  12. The amount of air that enters and leaves the lungs
    with each breath is the ________.
    tidal volume
  13. The enzyme that catalyzes the production of carbonic acid
    from carbon dioxide and water is

    carbonic anhydrase
  14. The respiratory center, which determines breathing
    rate, is located in the ________ of the brain.
    medulla oblongata
  15. Receptors that respond to a decrease in the partial
    pressure of oxygen in the blood are the ________ and ________ bodies.
    carotid, aortic
  16. Bacteria are classified as ________ because they are
    made up of cells that do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
  17. Microorganisms and cellular debris are removed from
    lymph by the ________ and from blood by the ________
    lymph nodes, spleen
  18. ________ cells prime the immune system to become
    active if an antigen enters the body a second time.
  19. Inflammation generally results when tissues become
    damaged and ________ cells respond by releasing histamine.
  20. Chemicals released by macrophages that cause the onset
    of a fever are called ________.
  21. Cell-mediated
    immunity involves the activity of ________ lymphocytes
  22. The unique set of proteins located on the surface of
    cells that distinguish one organism from another are the ________.
    major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins
  23. Plasma cells and memory cells are types of ________
    lymphocytes; both types of cells secrete proteins called ________ as part of
    the immune response.
    B, antibodies
  24. The only T lymphocyte that directly attacks and
    destroys other cells is the ________ T cell.
    cytotoxic (killer or T8)
  25. Drugs that kill bacteria are known as ________.
  26. T helper cells release ________, proteins that
    stimulate the activity of other T cells and macrophages; these chemicals
    stimulate inflammation as well.
  27. Following transplant surgery, a patient is given
    ________ drugs that block the action of the immune response against the
    transplanted organ
  28. A severe allergic reaction (difficulty in breathing,
    fall in blood pressure, severe stomach cramps) is known as ________.
    anaphylactic shock
  29. A condition that results when the immune system
    produces antibodies and cytotoxic T cells against its own cells is a(n)
    ________ disorder.
  30. The main cell of the immune system targeted by HIV is
    the ________.
    T helper cell
  31. Smooth muscle, in the form of ________ , is frequently
    located where arterioles meet capillaries.
    precapillary sphinctors
  32. Contraction of smooth muscle in the wall of arterioles
    results in ________.
  33. ) The smallest arteries are called ________; the
    smallest veins are called ________.
    arterioles, venules
  34. The atrioventricular valves are supported by
    connective tissue strands called ________, which prevent the valves from
    chordae tendineae
  35. ________ prevent the backflow of blood, in veins
  36. Deoxygenated blood leaving the right side of the heart
    next passes through the ________

    where the blood is reoxygenated
  37. The two upper chambers of the heart are called
    ________; the two lower chambers of the heart are called ________.
    atria, ventricles
  38. The heart receives oxygen and nutrients from blood
    transported by the ________ arteries.
  39. The force exerted by blood on the wall of a blood
    vessel is known as ________.
    blood pressure
  40. Spontaneous contractions of the heart muscle begin in
    the ________.
    sinoatrial node
  41. The electrical signal causing contraction of the heart
    is carried from the atrioventricular bundle to the myocardium of the ventricles
    by ________ fibers.
  42. A record of the electrical
    impulses characteristic of the cardiac conduction system is known as a(n)
  43. When baroreceptors are stretched, nerve impulses from
    these receptors will ultimately cause a(n) ________ in cardiac output
  44. The amount of blood leaving the heart with every
    contraction is known as ________.
    stroke volume
  45. The ________ division of the nervous system causes the
    rate of heart contraction to increase
  46. The fluid portion of blood is known as blood ________;
    this portion constitutes approximately ________% of the total blood volume.
    plasma, 55
  47. The osmotic balance between blood and interstitial
    fluid is maintained by plasma proteins called ________.
  48. Hemoglobin is most likely to release oxygen to tissues
    when the pH of tissues is ________ and the temperature is ________.
    low, high
  49. Cells located in red bone marrow that give rise to
    platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells are called ________ cells.
  50. The hormone, ________, secreted by the ________,
    stimulates the production of red blood cells when the level of oxygen in the
    body decreases
    erythropoietin, kidney
  51. The color changes associated with a healing bruise can
    be attributed to the breakdown of heme groups to ________.
  52. T lymphocytes mature in the ________ gland
  53. "Granular" and "agranular"
    describe types of ________ blood cells
  54. The swelling, itching, and redness associated with
    injury to a tissue is known as the ________ response.
  55. Platelets are actually cytoplasmic and cell membrane
    pieces of ________.
  56. Fragments of cells that are important in blood
    clotting are ________.
  57. Vascular
    spasm, formation of a platelet plug, and coagulation are the three stages of

  58. Cell surface proteins that are foreign to the body and
    therefore cause a response from the immune system are known as ________.
  59. Proteins produced by the immune system in response to
    the presence of an antigen are known as ________.
  60. In order to prevent the onset of hemolytic disease of
    the newborn, an Rh-negative
    woman, pregnant with an Rh+
    child, can be given ________ during pregnancy
    Rh antibodies (RhoGAM)