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The respiratory system functions to ________ with
the environment and also to produce ________.
exchange gases, sounds
At the end of every ________ is a cluster of ________,
where gas exchange takes place.
In the diagram above, ________ must be released over
the inner surface of the sac-like
structures to reduce surface tension.
Air spaces in the skull called the ________ and
________ carry fluid away from the eyes and drain into the nasal cavity.
sinuses, tear ducts
The lower pharynx serves as a passageway for both the
________ and ________ systems.
It is impossible to talk while swallowing because the
________ blocks the opening to the lower respiratory tract, routing food to the
esophagus instead of the ________.
Sound results from the ________ of the vocal cords as
air passes through the larynx.
During the cough reflex, the trachea ________ slightly
to increase the velocity of air movement.
Tobacco smoke contains chemicals that ________ the
production of mucus and ________ the activity of cilia in the respiratory
The exchange of gases in the lungs occurs between the
alveoli and the ________ capillaries.
The muscles involved in respiration include the
________ muscles located between the ribs and the ________ located between the
thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity.
The amount of air that enters and leaves the lungs
with each breath is the ________.
The enzyme that catalyzes the production of carbonic acid
from carbon dioxide and water is
The respiratory center, which determines breathing
rate, is located in the ________ of the brain.
Receptors that respond to a decrease in the partial
pressure of oxygen in the blood are the ________ and ________ bodies.
Bacteria are classified as ________ because they are
made up of cells that do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
Microorganisms and cellular debris are removed from
lymph by the ________ and from blood by the ________
lymph nodes, spleen
________ cells prime the immune system to become
active if an antigen enters the body a second time.
Inflammation generally results when tissues become
damaged and ________ cells respond by releasing histamine.
Chemicals released by macrophages that cause the onset
of a fever are called ________.
immunity involves the activity of ________ lymphocytes
The unique set of proteins located on the surface of
cells that distinguish one organism from another are the ________.
major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins
Plasma cells and memory cells are types of ________
lymphocytes; both types of cells secrete proteins called ________ as part of
the immune response.
The only T lymphocyte that directly attacks and
destroys other cells is the ________ T cell.
cytotoxic (killer or T8)
Drugs that kill bacteria are known as ________.
T helper cells release ________, proteins that
stimulate the activity of other T cells and macrophages; these chemicals
stimulate inflammation as well.
Following transplant surgery, a patient is given
________ drugs that block the action of the immune response against the
A severe allergic reaction (difficulty in breathing,
fall in blood pressure, severe stomach cramps) is known as ________.
A condition that results when the immune system
produces antibodies and cytotoxic T cells against its own cells is a(n)
The main cell of the immune system targeted by HIV is
T helper cell
Smooth muscle, in the form of ________ , is frequently
located where arterioles meet capillaries.
Contraction of smooth muscle in the wall of arterioles
results in ________.
) The smallest arteries are called ________; the
smallest veins are called ________.
The atrioventricular valves are supported by
connective tissue strands called ________, which prevent the valves from
________ prevent the backflow of blood, in veins
Deoxygenated blood leaving the right side of the heart
next passes through the ________
where the blood is reoxygenated
The two upper chambers of the heart are called
________; the two lower chambers of the heart are called ________.
The heart receives oxygen and nutrients from blood
transported by the ________ arteries.
The force exerted by blood on the wall of a blood
vessel is known as ________.
Spontaneous contractions of the heart muscle begin in
The electrical signal causing contraction of the heart
is carried from the atrioventricular bundle to the myocardium of the ventricles
by ________ fibers.
A record of the electrical
impulses characteristic of the cardiac conduction system is known as a(n)
When baroreceptors are stretched, nerve impulses from
these receptors will ultimately cause a(n) ________ in cardiac output
The amount of blood leaving the heart with every
contraction is known as ________.
The ________ division of the nervous system causes the
rate of heart contraction to increase
The fluid portion of blood is known as blood ________;
this portion constitutes approximately ________% of the total blood volume.
The osmotic balance between blood and interstitial
fluid is maintained by plasma proteins called ________.
Hemoglobin is most likely to release oxygen to tissues
when the pH of tissues is ________ and the temperature is ________.
Cells located in red bone marrow that give rise to
platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells are called ________ cells.
The hormone, ________, secreted by the ________,
stimulates the production of red blood cells when the level of oxygen in the
The color changes associated with a healing bruise can
be attributed to the breakdown of heme groups to ________.
T lymphocytes mature in the ________ gland
"Granular" and "agranular"
describe types of ________ blood cells
The swelling, itching, and redness associated with
injury to a tissue is known as the ________ response.
Platelets are actually cytoplasmic and cell membrane
pieces of ________.
Fragments of cells that are important in blood
clotting are ________.
spasm, formation of a platelet plug, and coagulation are the three stages of
Cell surface proteins that are foreign to the body and
therefore cause a response from the immune system are known as ________.
Proteins produced by the immune system in response to
the presence of an antigen are known as ________.
In order to prevent the onset of hemolytic disease of
the newborn, an Rh-negative
woman, pregnant with an Rh+
child, can be given ________ during pregnancy
Rh antibodies (RhoGAM)