Card Set Information

2014-10-17 06:33:47
first test
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  1. celsius temperature scale
    a temperature scale on which water has a freezing point of O and a boiling point of 100 C
  2. centiermeter
    a unit of length in the metric system; there are 2.54 cm in 1 in
  3. chemical
    a substance that has the same composition and properties whoever it i found
  4. chemistry
    the science that studies the composition, structure, and properties, and reactions of matter
  5. conversion factor
    a ratio i which the numerator and denominator are quantities form an equality or given relationship. for example, the conversion factors for the relationship 1 kg=2.2 lb is 2.2 lb/1 kg and 1 kg/2.2 lb
  6. cub centimeter (cc or cm3)
    the volume of a cube that has 1 cm sides, 1 cm3 is equal to 1 mL
  7. density
    the relationship of the has of an object to its volume expressed as grams per cub centimeter (g/cm3), grams per milliliter (g/m;) or grams per liter (g/L)
  8. equality
    a relationship between two units that measure the same quantity
  9. exact number
    a number obtained by counting or by definition
  10. gram
    the metric unit used in measurements of mass
  11. international system of units SI
    a system of units that modifies th emetic system
  12. Kelvin temperature scale
    a temperature scale on which the lowest possible temperature is 0 K
  13. kilogram
    a metric mass of 1000 g and equal to 2.2 lb. the kilogram is the SI standard unit of mass
  14. liter
    the metric unit for volume that is slightly larger than a quart
  15. mass
    a measure of the quantity of material in an object
  16. measured number
    a number obtained when a quantity is determined by using a measuring device
  17. meter
    the metric unit of rlenght that is slightly longer than a yard. the mere is the SI standard unit of length
  18. metric system
    a system of measurement used by scientists and i most countries of the world
  19. milliliter
    a metric unit of volume equal to one thousandth of a liter (.001 L
  20. prefix
    the part of the name of the metric unit that precedes the base unit and specifies the size of the measurement.  All prefixes are related on a decimal scale
  21. scientific notation
    a form of writing large and small numbers using a coefficient that is at least 1 but less than 10, followed by a power of 10
  22. second
    the standard unit of time in the SI an diametric system
  23. significant figures (SFs)
    the numbers recorded in a measurement
  24. specific gravity (sp gr)
    • a relationship between the density of a substance and the density of water
    • formula: density of sample/density of water
  25. temperature
    an indicator of the hotness or coldness of an object
  26. volume
    the amount of space occupied by a substance
  27. boiling
    the formation of bubbles of gas throughout a liquid
  28. boiling point
    the temperature at which a liquid changes to gas and gas changes to liquid (condenses)
  29. calorie (cal)
    the amount of heat energy that raises the temperature of early 1 g of water.

    1 cal=4.184 joules
  30. Calorie (Cal)
    a nutritional unit of energy equal to 1000 cal, or 1 kcal
  31. change of state
    the transformation of one state of matter to another; for example, from solid to liquid, liquid to solid, and liquid to gas.
  32. chemical change
    a change during which the original substance is converted into a new substance with a different composition and new physical and chemical properties
  33. chemical properties
    the properties that indicate the ability of a bustance to change to a new substance
  34. compound
    a pure substance consisting of two or more elements, with a definite composition, that can be broken down into a simpler substance only by chemical methods
  35. condensation
    the chang eof state of a gas to a liquid
  36. deposition
    the reverse process of sublimation, with gas particles changing directing into a solid
  37. element
    a pure substance containing only one type of matter, which cannot be broken down by chemical methods
  38. energy
    the ability to do work
  39. energy (calorie) value
    the kilojoules or kilocalories obtained per gram of the three food types: carbs, fat, and protein
  40. evaporation
    the formation of a gas or vapor by the escape of high energy molecules form the surface of a liquid
  41. freezing
    a change of state form liquid to solid
  42. freezing point
    the temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid and a solid changes to a liquid
  43. gas
    a state of matter characterized by no definite shape or volume.  particles in a gas move rapidly
  44. heat
    the energy associated with the motion of particles in a substance
  45. joule (J)
    the SI unit of heat energy. 4.184 j=1 cal
  46. kinetic energy
    the energy of motion
  47. liquid
    a state of matter that takes the shape of its container but has a definite volume
  48. matter
    anything that has mass and occupies space
  49. melting
    a change in state that involves the conversion of a solid to a liquid
  50. melting point
    the temperature at which a skid becomes a liquid.  it is the same temperature as the freezing point
  51. mixture
    the physical combination of two or more substances that does not change the identities of the subtances
  52. physical change
    the chance in which the physical appearance of a substance changes, but he chemical composition stays the same
  53. potential energy
    an inaktive typ elf energy that is stored for future use
  54. pure substance
    matter composed of elements or compounds that has a definite composition
  55. soid
    a state of matter that has its own shape and volume
  56. specific heat
    a quantity of heat that changes the temperature of eacty 1 g of a substance by exactly 1 C
  57. sublimation
    the change of state in which a solid is transformed directly to a gas without forming a liquid first
  58. work
    an activity that requires energy
  59. alkalie metal
    an element in group 1A except hydrogen, that is a soft, shiny metal with one electron in its outermost energy level
  60. alakaline eart metal
    an elemtn in Group 1A that has two electrons in its outermost energy level
  61. atom
    the smallest particle of and element that retains the characteristics of the element
  62. atomic mass
    the weighted average mass of all the natural occurring isotopes of an element
  63. atomic mass unit (amu)
    a small mass unit used to describe the mass of extremely small particles such as atoms and subatomic particles. 1amu is equal to one twelfth the mass of a 12/6C atom
  64. atomic number
    a number that is equal to the number of protons in an atom
  65. atomic symbol
    an abbreviation used to indicate the mass number and atomic number of an isotope
  66. chemical symbol
    an abbreviation that represents the name of an elemtn
  67. d block
    the bock of ten elements from Groups 3B to 2B in which eletrcons fill the five  orbital in the d sublevels
  68. electron
    a negatively charged subatomic particle having a minute mass that is usually ignored in mass calculations
  69. electron configuration
    a list of the number of electrons in each sub level within an atom, arranged by increasing energy
  70. electron dot symbol
    the representation of an atom that shows valence electrons as dots around the symbol of the element
  71. energy level
    a group of electrons with similar energy
  72. f block
    the block of 14 elements in the rows at the bottom of the periodic table in which electrons fill the seven f orbital sin the 4 f and 5f sublevels
  73. group
    a vertical column in the periodic table that contains elements having similar physical and chemical properties
  74. group umber
    a number hat tap pears at the top of each vertical column in the periodic table and indicates the number of electrons in the outermost energy level
  75. halogen
    n elemtn in group 7A that has seven electrons in its outermost energy level
  76. ionization energy
    the energy needed to remove the least tightly bound electron from the outermost energy level of an atom
  77. isotope
    an atom that differs only in mass number from another atom of the same element.  isotopes have the same atomic number but different numbers of neutrons
  78. mass numberqhte total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
  79. metal
    an element that is shiny, malleable, ductile and a good conductor of that and electricity.  the metals are located to the left of the heavy zigzag line on the periodic table
  80. metallooid
    elements with properties of both meals an nonmetals located along the heavy zigzag line
  81. neutron
    a neutral subatomic particle having a mass of about 1 amu and found in the nucleus of an atom.
  82. noble gas
    an element in group 8A of the periodic table, generally unreactive and seldom found in combiatio with other elements, that has eight electrons in its outermost energy level; except helium which has 2
  83. nonmetal
    an element with little or no luster that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.  the nonmetals are located to the right of the zigzag line
  84. nucleus
    the compact and dense center of an atom, containing the protons and neutrons of the atom
  85. orbital
    the region around the nucleus where electrons of a certain energy are more likely to be found.  the s orbital safe spherical; the p orbitals have two lobes
  86. orbital diagram
    a diagram that shows the distribution of electrons in the orbitals of the energy levels
  87. p block
    the elements in group 3A to 8A which electrons fill the p orbitals in the p sub levels
  88. period
    a horizontal row of elements in the periodic talbe
  89. periodic table
    an arrangement of elements by increasing atomic number such that elements having similar chemical behavior are grouped in vertical columns
  90. proton
    a psotiively charged subatomic particle having a mass of about 1 amu and found in the nucleus of an atom
  91. representative element
    an element in the first two columns on the left of the periodic table and the last six columns on the right that has group number 1A through 8A
  92. s block
    the elements i groups 1A and 2A in which electrons fill the s orbitals
  93. subatomic particles
    a particle within an atom; protons, neutrons, an electrons are subatomic particles.
  94. sublevel
    a group of orbitals of equal energy within principal energy levels.  the number of sub level in each every level is the same as the principal quantum number
  95. transition element
    an element in the center of the periodic table that is designated with the letter B and group number 3-12
  96. valence electrons
    electrons int eh highest energy level of an atom
  97. cation
    positively charged ion
  98. anion
    negatively charged ion
  99. ion
    an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.