# chem121

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1. celsius temperature scale
a temperature scale on which water has a freezing point of O and a boiling point of 100 C
2. centiermeter
a unit of length in the metric system; there are 2.54 cm in 1 in
3. chemical
a substance that has the same composition and properties whoever it i found
4. chemistry
the science that studies the composition, structure, and properties, and reactions of matter
5. conversion factor
a ratio i which the numerator and denominator are quantities form an equality or given relationship. for example, the conversion factors for the relationship 1 kg=2.2 lb is 2.2 lb/1 kg and 1 kg/2.2 lb
6. cub centimeter (cc or cm3)
the volume of a cube that has 1 cm sides, 1 cm3 is equal to 1 mL
7. density
the relationship of the has of an object to its volume expressed as grams per cub centimeter (g/cm3), grams per milliliter (g/m;) or grams per liter (g/L)
8. equality
a relationship between two units that measure the same quantity
9. exact number
a number obtained by counting or by definition
10. gram
the metric unit used in measurements of mass
11. international system of units SI
a system of units that modifies th emetic system
12. Kelvin temperature scale
a temperature scale on which the lowest possible temperature is 0 K
13. kilogram
a metric mass of 1000 g and equal to 2.2 lb. the kilogram is the SI standard unit of mass
14. liter
the metric unit for volume that is slightly larger than a quart
15. mass
a measure of the quantity of material in an object
16. measured number
a number obtained when a quantity is determined by using a measuring device
17. meter
the metric unit of rlenght that is slightly longer than a yard. the mere is the SI standard unit of length
18. metric system
a system of measurement used by scientists and i most countries of the world
19. milliliter
a metric unit of volume equal to one thousandth of a liter (.001 L
20. prefix
the part of the name of the metric unit that precedes the base unit and specifies the size of the measurement.  All prefixes are related on a decimal scale
21. scientific notation
a form of writing large and small numbers using a coefficient that is at least 1 but less than 10, followed by a power of 10
22. second
the standard unit of time in the SI an diametric system
23. significant figures (SFs)
the numbers recorded in a measurement
24. specific gravity (sp gr)
• a relationship between the density of a substance and the density of water
• formula: density of sample/density of water
25. temperature
an indicator of the hotness or coldness of an object
26. volume
the amount of space occupied by a substance
27. boiling
the formation of bubbles of gas throughout a liquid
28. boiling point
the temperature at which a liquid changes to gas and gas changes to liquid (condenses)
29. calorie (cal)
the amount of heat energy that raises the temperature of early 1 g of water.

1 cal=4.184 joules
30. Calorie (Cal)
a nutritional unit of energy equal to 1000 cal, or 1 kcal
31. change of state
the transformation of one state of matter to another; for example, from solid to liquid, liquid to solid, and liquid to gas.
32. chemical change
a change during which the original substance is converted into a new substance with a different composition and new physical and chemical properties
33. chemical properties
the properties that indicate the ability of a bustance to change to a new substance
34. compound
a pure substance consisting of two or more elements, with a definite composition, that can be broken down into a simpler substance only by chemical methods
35. condensation
the chang eof state of a gas to a liquid
36. deposition
the reverse process of sublimation, with gas particles changing directing into a solid
37. element
a pure substance containing only one type of matter, which cannot be broken down by chemical methods
38. energy
the ability to do work
39. energy (calorie) value
the kilojoules or kilocalories obtained per gram of the three food types: carbs, fat, and protein
40. evaporation
the formation of a gas or vapor by the escape of high energy molecules form the surface of a liquid
41. freezing
a change of state form liquid to solid
42. freezing point
the temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid and a solid changes to a liquid
43. gas
a state of matter characterized by no definite shape or volume.  particles in a gas move rapidly
44. heat
the energy associated with the motion of particles in a substance
45. joule (J)
the SI unit of heat energy. 4.184 j=1 cal
46. kinetic energy
the energy of motion
47. liquid
a state of matter that takes the shape of its container but has a definite volume
48. matter
anything that has mass and occupies space
49. melting
a change in state that involves the conversion of a solid to a liquid
50. melting point
the temperature at which a skid becomes a liquid.  it is the same temperature as the freezing point
51. mixture
the physical combination of two or more substances that does not change the identities of the subtances
52. physical change
the chance in which the physical appearance of a substance changes, but he chemical composition stays the same
53. potential energy
an inaktive typ elf energy that is stored for future use
54. pure substance
matter composed of elements or compounds that has a definite composition
55. soid
a state of matter that has its own shape and volume
56. specific heat
a quantity of heat that changes the temperature of eacty 1 g of a substance by exactly 1 C
57. sublimation
the change of state in which a solid is transformed directly to a gas without forming a liquid first
58. work
an activity that requires energy
59. alkalie metal
an element in group 1A except hydrogen, that is a soft, shiny metal with one electron in its outermost energy level
60. alakaline eart metal
an elemtn in Group 1A that has two electrons in its outermost energy level
61. atom
the smallest particle of and element that retains the characteristics of the element
62. atomic mass
the weighted average mass of all the natural occurring isotopes of an element
63. atomic mass unit (amu)
a small mass unit used to describe the mass of extremely small particles such as atoms and subatomic particles. 1amu is equal to one twelfth the mass of a 12/6C atom
64. atomic number
a number that is equal to the number of protons in an atom
65. atomic symbol
an abbreviation used to indicate the mass number and atomic number of an isotope
66. chemical symbol
an abbreviation that represents the name of an elemtn
67. d block
the bock of ten elements from Groups 3B to 2B in which eletrcons fill the five  orbital in the d sublevels
68. electron
a negatively charged subatomic particle having a minute mass that is usually ignored in mass calculations
69. electron configuration
a list of the number of electrons in each sub level within an atom, arranged by increasing energy
70. electron dot symbol
the representation of an atom that shows valence electrons as dots around the symbol of the element
71. energy level
a group of electrons with similar energy
72. f block
the block of 14 elements in the rows at the bottom of the periodic table in which electrons fill the seven f orbital sin the 4 f and 5f sublevels
73. group
a vertical column in the periodic table that contains elements having similar physical and chemical properties
74. group umber
a number hat tap pears at the top of each vertical column in the periodic table and indicates the number of electrons in the outermost energy level
75. halogen
n elemtn in group 7A that has seven electrons in its outermost energy level
76. ionization energy
the energy needed to remove the least tightly bound electron from the outermost energy level of an atom
77. isotope
an atom that differs only in mass number from another atom of the same element.  isotopes have the same atomic number but different numbers of neutrons
78. mass numberqhte total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
79. metal
an element that is shiny, malleable, ductile and a good conductor of that and electricity.  the metals are located to the left of the heavy zigzag line on the periodic table
80. metallooid
elements with properties of both meals an nonmetals located along the heavy zigzag line
81. neutron
a neutral subatomic particle having a mass of about 1 amu and found in the nucleus of an atom.
82. noble gas
an element in group 8A of the periodic table, generally unreactive and seldom found in combiatio with other elements, that has eight electrons in its outermost energy level; except helium which has 2
83. nonmetal
an element with little or no luster that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.  the nonmetals are located to the right of the zigzag line
84. nucleus
the compact and dense center of an atom, containing the protons and neutrons of the atom
85. orbital
the region around the nucleus where electrons of a certain energy are more likely to be found.  the s orbital safe spherical; the p orbitals have two lobes
86. orbital diagram
a diagram that shows the distribution of electrons in the orbitals of the energy levels
87. p block
the elements in group 3A to 8A which electrons fill the p orbitals in the p sub levels
88. period
a horizontal row of elements in the periodic talbe
89. periodic table
an arrangement of elements by increasing atomic number such that elements having similar chemical behavior are grouped in vertical columns
90. proton
a psotiively charged subatomic particle having a mass of about 1 amu and found in the nucleus of an atom
91. representative element
an element in the first two columns on the left of the periodic table and the last six columns on the right that has group number 1A through 8A
92. s block
the elements i groups 1A and 2A in which electrons fill the s orbitals
93. subatomic particles
a particle within an atom; protons, neutrons, an electrons are subatomic particles.
94. sublevel
a group of orbitals of equal energy within principal energy levels.  the number of sub level in each every level is the same as the principal quantum number
95. transition element
an element in the center of the periodic table that is designated with the letter B and group number 3-12
96. valence electrons
electrons int eh highest energy level of an atom
97. cation
positively charged ion
98. anion
negatively charged ion
99. ion
an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
 Author: swasdo ID: 286084 Card Set: chem121 Updated: 2014-10-17 10:33:47 Tags: midterm Folders: chem121 Description: first test Show Answers: