Nervous Tissue - Chapter 12

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Nervous Tissue - Chapter 12
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2014-10-29 15:01:32
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nervous system
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  1. Neurology
    deals w/ normal functioning and disorders of the nervous system
  2. Neurologist
    physician who diagnoses and treats disorders of the nervous system
  3. Nervous System
    • 2kg - 3% of body mass
    • smallest most complex of the 11 body systems
  4. Nervous System Main Subdivisions
    • 1. central nervous system (CNS)
    • 2. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  5. Central Nervous System
    • consists of brain and spinal cord
    • (integration occurs)
  6. Peripheral Nervous System
    consists of cranial nerves & spinal nerves
  7. Nervous System Function
    • 1. Sensory (Afferent)
    • 2. Motor (Efferent)
    • 3. Integrative (Associative)
    • Throughout body we will see specialized neuron's to perform the functions above.
  8. Sensory Function
    Afferent - Sensory Neurons
  9. Motor Function
    Efferent - Motor Neurons
  10. Integrative Function
    Associative - Association Neurons (Integration)
  11. Integration
    nervous system processes sensory information by analyzing it  & making decisions for appropriate responses
  12. Where do the cranial nerves originate from?
    out of the lower part of the brain & enervate the face & the head area.
  13. Where do the spinal nerves originate from?
    area of the spinal cord & runs all the way down from the connection w/ the brain, wh/ is in the medulla & the cervical spinal cord all the way down to the pelvic floor & the coxs vertebrae coxs area of the spinal cord.
  14. Peripheral Nervous System
    • All nervous tissue outside the CNS.
    • Cranial & Spinal Nerves
    • Devided Into...
    • 1. Somatic (SNS)
    • 2. Autonomic (ANS)
    • 3. Enteric (ENS)
  15. Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
    • SENSORY & MOTION; SKELETAL
    • 1) sensory neurons that convey info from CNS from somatic receptors in the head, body wall, and limbs & from receptors for the special senses of vision, hearing, taste, and smell
    • 2) motor neurons that conduct implulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles only. (because motor responses can be consciously controlled, the action of this part of the PNS is voluntary)
  16. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
    • 1) sensory neurons that convey information to the CNS from sutomonic sensory receptors, located primarily in visceral organs (stomach & lungs)
    • 2) motor neurons that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, & glands. INVOLUNTARY
    • motor part of ANS consists of two branches
    • 1) sympathetic division
    • 2) parasympathetic division
    • w/ few exceptions, effectors receive nerves from both divisions, and usually the 2 divisions have opposing actions.
  17. sympathetic division
    • fight/flight
    • increase heart rate
    • increase BP
    • increase respirations
  18. parasympathetic division
    • feed/breed (rest/relax or rest and digest)
    • decrease hear rate
  19. Nervous Tissue...
    • 1. Neurons
    • 2. Neuroglia
  20. Enteric Nervous System (ENS)
    • "brain of the gut"
    • involutary
    • > 100mm neurons in enteric plexuses that extend most of the length of the GI tract
    • ALIMENTURY CANAL
    • monitor chemical changes w/in GI tract
  21. Major Plexuses
    • 1. Cervical Plexus
    • 2. Brachial Plexus
    • 3. Lumbar Plexus
    • 4. Sacral Plexus
  22. Cirvical Plexus Nerve(s)
    1. Phrenic
  23. Brachial Plexus Nerve(s)
    • 1. Musculocutaneous Nerve
    • 2. Axillary Nerve
    • 3. Median Nerve
    • 4. Radial Nerve
    • 5. Ulnar Nerve
  24. Lumbar Plexus Nerve(s)
    • 1. Femoral Nerve
    • 2. Obturator Nerve
  25. Sacral Plexus Nerve(s)
    • 1. Sciatic Nerve
    • 2. Tibial Nerve
  26. Plexuses Components
    • A) Trunks
    • B) Cords
    • C) Roots
    • D) Nerves
  27. Role of ion channels...
    Voltage regulated gated channels that control the flow of Na, Ca, K & Cl
  28. Chemically gated channels...
    Ligands, receptor on neurolemma
  29. Mechanically gated channels...
    Conformational change in receptor
  30. 2 types of conduction
    • 1. continuous
    • 2. saltatory
  31. continuous conduction
    step-by-step depolarization & repolarization of each adjacent segment of the plasma membrane (occurs in unmyelenated axons and in muscle fibers)
  32. saltatory conduction
    special mode of action potential propagation that occurs alongy myelinated axons, occurs because of the uneven distribution of voltage-gated channels.
  33. synaptic cleft
    space 20-50nm between presynaptic & postsynaptic neurons filled w/ intersittial fluid where indirect communication occurs.
  34. Association Tract
    communication to another bundle in same place
  35. Commisural Tract
    communication to another bundle in opposite hemisphere
  36. Projection Tract
    communication from/to white to/from cerebrial cortex
  37. An increase in the concentration of Ca2+ inside the presynaptic neuron serves as a signal that triggers....
    exocytosis of the synaptic vesicles.
  38. CELL ION CONCENTRATIONS
    • INSIDE   OUTSIDE
    • Na+   LOW       HIGH
    • K+     HIGH      LOW
    • Ca++ LOW       HIGH
    • Cl=    HIGH      LOW
  39. Name the tracts...
    • 1. association
    • 2. commisural
    • 3. projection
  40. What separates the ventricles?
    Septum Rellucidum
  41. What produces CSF?
    Chroid Plexus
  42. How does CSF flow out from 4th ventricle?
    • left and right lateral apperatures
    • median apperature
  43. How does CSF depart 3rd ventricle?
    Cerebral Aquaduct
  44. What joins L&R ventricles?
    Intervericulum
  45. Sulci (in cortex)
    • 1. Central Sulcus
    • 2. Parietal/Occipital Sulcus
    • 3. Lateral Sulcas
  46. Central Sulcus
    Separates parietal from frontal lobe.
  47. Parietal/Occipital Sulcus
    Separates parietal from lobe of cereb cortex.
  48. Lateral Sulcas
    Separates parietal lobe from temporal lobe.
  49. what recaptures CSF?
    Arachnoidvilli
  50. List secondary brain vesicles...
    • 1. telencephalon
    • 2. diencephalon
    • 3. mesencephalon 
    • 4. metencephalon
    • 5. mylencephalon

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