Nervous Tissue - Chapter 12
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deals w/ normal functioning and disorders of the nervous system
physician who diagnoses and treats disorders of the nervous system
- 2kg - 3% of body mass
- smallest most complex of the 11 body systems
Nervous System Main Subdivisions
- 1. central nervous system (CNS)
- 2. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Central Nervous System
- consists of brain and spinal cord
- (integration occurs)
Peripheral Nervous System
consists of cranial nerves & spinal nerves
Nervous System Function
- 1. Sensory (Afferent)
- 2. Motor (Efferent)
- 3. Integrative (Associative)
- Throughout body we will see specialized neuron's to perform the functions above.
Afferent - Sensory Neurons
Efferent - Motor Neurons
Associative - Association Neurons (Integration)
nervous system processes sensory information by analyzing it & making decisions for appropriate responses
Where do the cranial nerves originate from?
out of the lower part of the brain & enervate the face & the head area.
Where do the spinal nerves originate from?
area of the spinal cord & runs all the way down from the connection w/ the brain, wh/ is in the medulla & the cervical spinal cord all the way down to the pelvic floor & the coxs vertebrae coxs area of the spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
- All nervous tissue outside the CNS.
- Cranial & Spinal Nerves
- Devided Into...
- 1. Somatic (SNS)
- 2. Autonomic (ANS)
- 3. Enteric (ENS)
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
- SENSORY & MOTION; SKELETAL
- 1) sensory neurons that convey info from CNS from somatic receptors in the head, body wall, and limbs & from receptors for the special senses of vision, hearing, taste, and smell
- 2) motor neurons that conduct implulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles only. (because motor responses can be consciously controlled, the action of this part of the PNS is voluntary)
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
- 1) sensory neurons that convey information to the CNS from sutomonic sensory receptors, located primarily in visceral organs (stomach & lungs)
- 2) motor neurons that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, & glands. INVOLUNTARY
- motor part of ANS consists of two branches
- 1) sympathetic division
- 2) parasympathetic division
- w/ few exceptions, effectors receive nerves from both divisions, and usually the 2 divisions have opposing actions.
- increase heart rate
- increase BP
- increase respirations
- feed/breed (rest/relax or rest and digest)
- decrease hear rate
Enteric Nervous System (ENS)
- "brain of the gut"
- > 100mm neurons in enteric plexuses that extend most of the length of the GI tract
- ALIMENTURY CANAL
- monitor chemical changes w/in GI tract
- 1. Cervical Plexus
- 2. Brachial Plexus
- 3. Lumbar Plexus
- 4. Sacral Plexus
Cirvical Plexus Nerve(s)
Brachial Plexus Nerve(s)
- 1. Musculocutaneous Nerve
- 2. Axillary Nerve
- 3. Median Nerve
- 4. Radial Nerve
- 5. Ulnar Nerve
Lumbar Plexus Nerve(s)
- 1. Femoral Nerve
- 2. Obturator Nerve
Sacral Plexus Nerve(s)
- 1. Sciatic Nerve
- 2. Tibial Nerve
- A) Trunks
- B) Cords
- C) Roots
- D) Nerves
Role of ion channels...
Voltage regulated gated channels that control the flow of Na, Ca, K & Cl
Chemically gated channels...
Ligands, receptor on neurolemma
Mechanically gated channels...
Conformational change in receptor
2 types of conduction
- 1. continuous
- 2. saltatory
step-by-step depolarization & repolarization of each adjacent segment of the plasma membrane (occurs in unmyelenated axons and in muscle fibers)
special mode of action potential propagation that occurs alongy myelinated axons, occurs because of the uneven distribution of voltage-gated channels.
space 20-50nm between presynaptic & postsynaptic neurons filled w/ intersittial fluid where indirect communication occurs.
communication to another bundle in same place
communication to another bundle in opposite hemisphere
communication from/to white to/from cerebrial cortex
An increase in the concentration of Ca2+ inside the presynaptic neuron serves as a signal that triggers....
exocytosis of the synaptic vesicles.
CELL ION CONCENTRATIONS
- INSIDE OUTSIDE
- Na+ LOW HIGH
- K+ HIGH LOW
- Ca++ LOW HIGH
- Cl= HIGH LOW
Name the tracts...
- 1. association
- 2. commisural
- 3. projection
What separates the ventricles?
What produces CSF?
How does CSF flow out from 4th ventricle?
- left and right lateral apperatures
- median apperature
How does CSF depart 3rd ventricle?
What joins L&R ventricles?
Sulci (in cortex)
- 1. Central Sulcus
- 2. Parietal/Occipital Sulcus
- 3. Lateral Sulcas
Separates parietal from frontal lobe.
Separates parietal from lobe of cereb cortex.
Separates parietal lobe from temporal lobe.
what recaptures CSF?
List secondary brain vesicles...
- 1. telencephalon
- 2. diencephalon
- 3. mesencephalon
- 4. metencephalon
- 5. mylencephalon
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