Patho Exam 2-Cancer

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Patho Exam 2-Cancer
2014-10-17 10:24:57
Med surg
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  1. Preinvasive epithelial tumors of glandular or squamous cell origin
    Carnconoma in Situ (CIS)
  2. Common benign and malignant tumors
    • Fibrous connective tissue
    • Lymphoid
    • Nerve
    • Glandular Epithelial
  3. What is the difference between fibroma vs fibrosarcoma fibrous connective tissue tumors
    • fibroma-benign
    • FS-malignant
  4. What is the difference between infectious mononucleosis and lymphoma in lymphois tissue tumors
    • Lymphoma-malignant
    • IM-benign
  5. What is the difference between neuroma and neurogenic sarcoma in nerve tissue tumors
    • neuroma-benign
    • NS-malignant
  6. What is the difference between Adenoma and adenocarcinoma in Glandular epithelial tissue tumors
    • Adenoma-benign
    • AC-malignant
  7. Name 4 common benign tumors
    • Fibroma
    • Infectious mononucleosis
    • Neuroma
    • Adenoma
  8. Name 4 common malignant tumors
    • Fibrosarcoma
    • Lymphoma
    • Neurogenic Sarcoma
    • Adenocarcinoma
  9. What type of cell changes cause independence from normal cellular control
    Transformation (autonomy)
  10. What type of cell changes cause continued division and an unlimited lifespan
  11. What type of cell change causes a loss of cellular differientiation or specialization, loses ability to function and control its own growth/division, and is common in most malignant tumors
  12. What cell change has variable size and shapes
  13. Where are tumor cell markers found and produced
    • Produced-cancer cells
    • Found- tumor plasma membranes in blood, spinal fluid, or urine
  14. Examples of tumor markers
    • AFP
    • PSA
    • ACTH
  15. What marker suggests hepatic or germ cell CA
  16. What marker suggests prostate cancer
  17. what marker suggests pituitary adenomas
  18. What produces proteins that normally inhibit cell division or oppose action of oncogene that can transform a normal cell into a cancerous cell when inherited or activated by a virus
    Tumor suppressor gene
  19. What inactives tumor suppressor genes by loss of heterozygosity (loss of one gene copy), unmasks mutations in suppressor genes, and causes methylation of DNA to shut off without mutation (silencing), and activates oncogenes
  20. What is the most common mutation that causes resistance to apoptosis or self-destruction mechanisms
    p53 gene
  21. What are at the ends of chromosomes that block unlimited cell division
  22. What does telomerase contain
  23. What activates telomerase to restore and maintain telomeres so cells can divide over and over again
    Cancer cells
  24. What bacterium is the most common cause of gastric infection, responsible for major PUD, gastric lymphomas, and gastric carcinomas
    H. Pylori
  25. What happens when cancer cells overcome multiple anatomic barriers to be able to spread, survive, and reproduce
  26. Describe the sequence of metastasis
    • Detachment (adhesion loss)
    • Invasion (lymph/vascular) -platelet attachment
    • Migration (lymph/venous flow)
  27. What enables colon cancer to spread to liver, liver cancers to spread to the lungs, lung cancer to spread to the brain, and breast cancer to spread to axillary nodes
    Migration of cancer cells in lymph and venous
  28. Name three treatment types for cancer
    • Chemo
    • Radiation
    • Surgery
  29. What treatment goal is to kill cells that are undergoing mitosis (in interphase) and cytokinesis
  30. What therapy goal eradicates neoplastic cells without producing excessive toxicity and avoid damage to normal structures
  31. What treatment goal is useful and definitive when neoplasm is accessible and has not spread beyond the limits of incision
  32. Name complications of cancer
    • pain
    • fatigue
    • infection
    • cachexia
    • hyperglycemia
    • Anemia
    • leukopenia and thrombocytopenia
  33. What is the complication of pain related to in cancer
    • tissue necrosis
    • direct pressure
    • obstruction
  34. What is the most significant cause of death in malignancies
  35. What is Cachexia
    wasting, emaciation, anorexia, and early satiety
  36. What causes hyperglycemic complication in cancer
    Cytokins IL-6, Interferons, and TNF cause alterations associated with tissue loss
  37. What causes anemia complication in cancer
    depletion of erythrocyte building block depletion or destruction or bone marrow where RBCs synthesize
  38. What are mitotically and meiotically heritable changes that collabarate with environmental-lifestyle factors to cause development of Cancer
  39. 3 major ares of epigenetics
    • Methylation
    • Histone modifcation of chromatin
    • microRNAs
  40. What is the addition of a methyl group to cytosine ring to silence tumor suppressor genes
  41. What do microRNAs act as
    oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes
  42. What period precedes adult onset of cancer
    Long-Latency period
  43. Ability to develop particular ways r/t environment of setting
    Developmental plasticity
  44. What is an example of a long latency period
    DES and breast cancer before 40
  45. Most important cause of cancer
  46. What is a combination of sidestream and mainstream smoke
    secondhand smoke
  47. Sidestream smoke
    burning of cigarette
  48. Mainstream smoke
    exhaled by smoker
  49. What is Xenobiotics
    toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic chemicals
  50. What is Xenobiotics activated by
    phase 1 activation enzymes
  51. What is the most relevant carcinogens produced by cooking
    red meat
  52. What increases rate of death from cancer
    higher BMI
  53. What cells increase circulating levels of insulin and increase insulin-like growth factor biological activity
  54. What influences synthesis on sex steroids
    adipose cells
  55. What hormones play a role in breast and endometrial cancer
    estrogen and progesterone
  56. What cancer is r/t endogenous androgen (testosterone) metabolism
  57. What causes potent DNA damage by causing double-strand breaks
    Ionizing radiation - IR
  58. What can directly irradiated cells lead to
    genetic effects in bystander cells or innocent cells even though they received no IR exposure
  59. What induces the release of TNF in epidermis, reducing immunity to skin cancer
    UV radiation
  60. What does UV radiation target
    Squamous and basal cell carcinoma in p16 gene
  61. What gene causes 50-60% of cervical cancer
    HPV16 from std
  62. What increases risk for mestothelioma and lung cancer
  63. What is linked to leukemia in shoe makers, works in rubber cement, and dyeing industries
    benzol inhalation
  64. What can be inhaled from decay of uranium trapped in houses